The Hawkins Memorial Lecture

Battery Fast Charging and Next-Generation Thermal Management for Sustainable Electrification

Chao-Yang Wang, William E. Diefenderfer Chair in Mechanical Engineering, Distinguished Professor of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, and Professor of Materials Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University

Thursday, November 30, 2023
1:30 p.m. •  Potter Room 234
Reception and student poster session to follow at 3:30 p.m. in the ME Building Atrium

Abstract: Smaller, faster-charging batteries are the answer for affordable and sustainable electric vehicles for everyone, everywhere. The ability to quickly refill energy is profoundly important in the era of critical materials and battery shortages. In this talk I will present asymmetric temperature modulation (ATM) approach to enabling 10-minute fast charging of energy-dense Li-ion batteries in any temperatures (even at -50°C) while still delivering remarkable cycle life. A novel cell structure capable of thermal stimulation is introduced. We will also discuss a new figure of merit for fast charging batteries, composed of three metrics simultaneously: charge time (<10 min), specific energy acquired by fast charge (>200 Wh/kg), and cycle number (>1000) under the fast charge condition. Finally, battery fast charging must work in tandem with high-temperature stability of cycling and storage in order to provide high safety and low degradation and survive in hot summers. Thus there is a simultaneous need for greater than 4C charging and stable cycling and storage at greater than 75oC. Novel thermal management concepts for extreme fast charging will be presented. Overall, our development points to a new paradigm of battery design and thermal management without having to trade-off among fast charge, safety, lifetime, and cost.

Biography: Dr. Chao-Yang Wang is William E. Diefenderfer Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Chemical and Materials Science & Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. He has 220+ journal publications and an H-index of 113. He holds over 140 patents and has published two books, “Battery Systems Engineering” by Wiley and “Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells” by Springer. Dr. Wang is known for his innovative research on batteries and fuel cells; particularly for pioneering a new battery paradigm with modulatory states and interfaces. The all-climate battery (ACB) he invented was adopted by the 2022 Winter Olympics as well as commercialized by several carmakers. His latest invention on fast charging batteries was named as one of the 10 biggest science stories in 2022 by the Guardian. He is a Fellow of U.S. National Academy of Inventors (NAI) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and a speaker of many public forums such as 2021 Tencent WE Summit alongside two Nobel Laureates, 2022 Stanford StorageX Symposium, and 2022 Distinguished Transport Lecture at Hong Kong University. Dr. Wang’s expertise covers the transport, materials, manufacturing and modeling of batteries and fuel cells.

History of the Hawkins Lecture

This annual lecture series was established in 1984 to honor the memory of George A. Hawkins, former Dean of the Schools of Engineering. Renowned for his many contributions as a teacher, researcher, and administrator, he retained a strong commitment to heat transfer and was instrumental in establishing Purdue’s eminence in the field. The lecture provides an opportunity for a leader in heat transfer research to present topics of broad interest to the University community. This series is supported by an endowment created with gifts from the Heat Transfer Area faculty at Purdue.

George A. Hawkins was born in Denver, Colorado in 1907. He attended the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Denver before coming to Purdue where he received three degrees. Dr. Hawkins earned his Ph.D. in 1935 and began an academic career that spanned 41 years. Promoted to Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1942, he was Dean of the Schools of Engineering from 1953 to 1967 and Vice President of Academic Affairs from 1967 until his retirement in 1971. In addition to his administrative duties, he continued with technical pursuits, writing several textbooks and more than 150 papers and articles dealing with heat transfer, thermodynamics, and other engineering areas.

For his technical, professional, and administrative contributions, he received many honors, including election as member of the National Academy of Engineering, Life Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), and Honorary Member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). He received the ASME/Pi Tau Sigma Gold Medal in 1940. As dean, he was instrumental in effecting major changes in engineering education throughout the U.S., and was awarded the ASEE Medal for Distinguished and Meritorious Service in 1968. He was named National President of ASEE in 1970.

One of his strongest professional commitments was to the subject of heat transfer, and he had an important influence on establishing Purdue as a world leader in this area. In the 1930s and 1940s, he was, with William McAdams on the East Coast, M. Jakob in the Midwest, and L.M.K. Boelter on the West Coast, a major force in promoting the transition of heat transfer from an engineering art to a modern form of engineering strongly based on scientific fundamentals. His early work as a pioneer of heat transfer is well-documented. His program flourished, producing many outstanding graduate students who have enjoyed successful careers in industry, academia, and government.

Following his retirement in 1971, Dr. Hawkins continued to be active until his death in 1978.

Past Speakers

2022  Samuel Graham, University of Maryland
2021  John Bischof, University of Minnesota
2021  Cristina Amon, University of Toronto
2019  Cynthia Hipwell, Texas A&M University
2018  Costas P. Grigoropoulos, University of California Berkeley
2017  Mehmet Toner, Harvard Medical School (photo)
2016  Suhas V. Patankar, University of Minnesota
2015  Kenneth E. Goodson, Stanford University
2014  Jean-Jacques Greffet, Institute Optique Palaiseau-France
2013  Jayathi Murthy, Purdue University
2012  Gang Chen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2011  Chung K. Law, Princeton University
2010  Arun Majumdar, U.S. Department of Energy
2009  Mamoru Ishii, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University
2008  Paul Hommert, California Laboratories and Homeland Security & Defense Strategic Management Unit, Sandia National Laboratories
2007  Richard O. Buckius, National Science Foundation and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
2006  Yogesh Jaluria, Rutgers University
2005  Massoud Kaviany, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
2004  Dimos Poulikakos, ETH Zurich
2003  John H. Sununu, JHS Associates, Ltd.
2002  Kenneth R. Diller, University of Texas - Austin
2001  Martin C. Jischke, Purdue University
2000  Robert G. Watts, Tulane University
1999  Vijay K. Dhir, University of California - Los Angeles
1998  David P. DeWitt, Purdue University
1997  Boris Rubinsky, University of California - Berkeley
1996  Frank P. Incropera, Purdue University
1995  John R. Howell, University of Texas - Austin
1994  Julian Szekely, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1993  Robert Siegel, NASA Lewis Research Center
1992  Richard C. Chu, International Business Machines Corporation
1991  R. J. Goldstein, University of Minnesota
1990  Raymond Viskanta, Purdue University
1989  Franz Mayinger, Technische Universität München
1988  Wataru Nakayama, Hitachi, Ltd.
1987  Chang-Lin Tien, University of California - Berkeley
1986  Arthur E. Bergles, Iowa State University
1985  E. M. Sparrow, University of Minnesota
1984  Ernst R. G. Eckert, University of Minnesota