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Testing was conducted in a newly renovated single-family home for the first 4 months of use. The plumbing system was PEX type A pipe installed using trunk-and-branch design. More than 64 million data points were collected related to fixture water use and were analyzed. Drinking water sampling was conducted periodically at various locations in the home. Water was tested for both chemical, microbiological, and odor characteristics.

Key Findings:

  • During the study, the maximum fixture water stagnation time was 72 hours.
  • Hot water contained greater levels of bacteria and organic carbon than cold drinking water.
  • Chemical and bacteria levels varied across fixtures within the building.
  • Pb, Fe, and Zn exceeded EPA standards, but only at the least frequently used (and monitored) fixture in the basement.