Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering
701 West Stadium Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045
BiographyCarol A. Handwerker is the Reinhardt Schuhmann, Jr. Professor of Materials Engineering and Professor of Environmental and Ecological Engineering at Purdue University. Before joining Purdue in 2005, she was at NIST for 21 years, serving as the co-lead for Advanced Packaging as well as the Chief of the NIST Metallurgy Division for her last nine years at NIST. Handwerker is currently leading a $40M, 5-year DoD program in facilitating the transition to Pb-free electronics in defense systems and is co-PI of SCALE, a major DOD program on workforce development for advanced microelectronics. She was the Director of the Purdue-Tuskegee NSF Integrative Education and Research Traineeship program (IGERT) on Globally Sustainable Electronics (supporting 28 two-year fellowships from 2012-2019), served as a member of the iNEMI Environmental Leadership Steering Committee, along with Intel, Dell, and Lenovo and co-led the iNEMI project on Value Recovery for End-of Life Electronics, with Seagate, Google, Microsoft, Cisco as team members. She was the co-lead for Pb-free alloy selection in the iNEMI Pb-free Solder Project that selected and implemented SAC305 as the global replacement for Sn-Pb in consumer electronics. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ASM International, the American Ceramic Society, the Materials Research Society (MRS), and the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS), and received the TMS Leadership Award, the TMS Applications to Practice Award, the TMS/FMD John Bardeen Award, the Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer, and the Department of Commerce Gold Medal for her leadership in Pb-free electronics. Handwerker received a BA in Art History Wellesley College, a B.S. in materials science and engineering and M.S., and Sc.D. in ceramic science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her research areas include: developing innovative interconnect technologies for next-generation microelectronics and sustainable materials for thin film solar cells, improving the reliability of Pb-free solder interconnects, particularly for high performance, military, and aerospace electronic systems, integrating sustainability in the design of new electronic materials, processes, and products, identifying and implementing strategies to move R&D into manufacturing and commercialization, using roadmapping, techno-economic analysis, and formation of self-assembling socio-ecological systems, and controlling interface properties to design microstructures in polycrystalline materials and thin films.
- Sc.D. Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, 1983
- S.M. Ceramics, MIT, 1978
- S.B. Material Science and Engineering, MIT, 1978
- B.A. Art History, Wellesley College, 1973
- Purdue University, School of Materials Engineering, Professor - 2005 – present.
- Chief, Metallurgy Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg MD - 1996 – 2005.
- Group Leader – Materials Structure and Characterization Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology – 1994 - 1996.
- Metallurgist – Metallurgical Processing Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology - 1986 - 1993.
- NRC Postdoctoral Research Associate, National Bureau of Standards - 1984 - 1985.
- Max Planck Institut for Metallforschung – Stuttgart, Visiting Scientist at PML, September-October 1979; October 1985; Smithsonian Institution – Research Associate, Conservation Analytical Laboratory, Washington, DC, Research, Materials development in ancient technologies, June 1986 - June 1987.
Current research includes: Developing innovative interconnect technologies for next-generation microelectronics and advanced packaging and sustainable materials for thin film solar cells, improving the reliability of Pb-free solder interconnects, particularly for high performance, military, and aerospace electronic systems, integrating sustainability in the design of new electronic materials, processes, and products, identifying and implementing strategies to move R&D into manufacturing and commercialization, using roadmapping, techno-economic analysis, and formation of self-assembling socio-ecological systems, and controlling interface properties to design microstructures in polycrystalline materials and thin films
- Heterogeneous Stress Relaxation Processes at Grain Boundaries in High-Sn Solder Films: Effects of Sn Anisotropy and Grain Geometry during Thermal Cycling, Chen WH, Sarobol P, Handwerker CA, Blendell JE, Journal of Metals, 68  2888-2899 (2016).
- Solution-processed copper arsenic sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, McClary, Scott A.; Andler, Joseph; Handwerker, Carol A., Agrawal, Rakesh, Journal of Materials Chemistry C Volume: 5 Issue: 28 Pages: 6913-6916 Published: JUL 28 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7tc01920c
- Beta-Sn Grain Formation in Aluminum-Modified Lead-Free Alloys, Reeve, KN, Handwerker, CA, Journal of Electronics Materials, 47  61-76 (2018) DOI: 10.1007/s11664-017-5819-8 li>
- Reaction pathways and optoelectronic characterization of single-phase Ag2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles, Hu, Xianyi; Pritchett-Montavon, Susannah; Handwerker, Carol; Agrawal, Rakesh, Journal of Materials Research, 34  3810-3818 (2019) DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2019.328
- Reeve, T.C., Reeve, S.T. & Handwerker, C.A. Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates. Journal of Electronic Materials 49, 140–151 (2020). https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.purdue.edu/10.1007/s11664-019-07640-6
- Shallow grain formation in Sn thin films, Cai, Xiaorong, Handwerker, C.A., Blendell, J.E., Koslowski, M., Acta Materialia, 192 (2020) 1-10
- Fatigue Life of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Alloy Under Combined Cyclic Shear and Constant Tensile/Compressive Loads, Dale, Travis; Singh, Yuvraj; Bernander, Ian; Subbarayan, G; Handwerker, C.; Su, P; Glasauer, B, JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING Volume: 142 Issue: 4 Special Issue: SI Article Number: 041001 Published: DEC 1 2020.
- Life Cycle Assessment of Emerging Technologies on Value Recovery from Hard Disk Drives, Jin, H., Frost, K., Sousa, I., Ghaderi, H., Bevan, A., Zakotnik, M., Handwerker, C.A., Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 157 (2020) Article Number: 104781
- Guiding the environmental design of a novel solar absorber through life cycle assessment by identifying anticipated hot spots, Andler, J., Mathur, N., Sutherland, J.W., Zhao, F., Handwerker C.A., Journal of Cleaner Production, 258 (2020) Article Number: 120847
- Local Variations in Grain Formation, Grain Boundary Sliding, and Whisker Growth along Grain Boundaries in Large-Grain Tin Films, Chen, W.H., Wang, C., Blendell, J.E., Handwerker, C.A., Scripta Materialia, 187 (2020) 458-463; DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2020.06.033
- Equilibrium and kinetic shapes of grains in polycrystals, Rheinheimer, W., Blendell, J.E., Handwerker, C.A., Acta Materialia, 191 (2020) 101-110; DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2020.03.055
- The use of decision support tools to accelerate the development of circular economic business models for hard disk drives and rare-earth magnets, Frost, K; Jin, HY; Olson, W; Schaffer, M; Spencer, G; Handwerker, C, MRS ENERGY & SUSTAINABILITY, 7 (2020) Article Number: E22, DOI: 10.1557/mre.2020.21
- Hillock formation in β-Sn films during high frequency cyclic bending at low strains, Chen, Xi, Blendell, John E., Handwerker, Carol A., Thin Solid Films 741 (2021) 139027, DOI:10.1016/j.tsf.2021.139027.
- Influence of Pad Surface Finish on the Microstructure Evolution and Intermetallic Compound Growth in Homogeneous Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Ag Solder Interconnects, Fan, Yaohui, Wu, Yifan, Dale, Travis F., Lakshminarayana, Sukshitha Achar Puttur, Greene, Colin, V., Badwe, Nilesh U., Aspandiar, Raiyo F., Blendell, John, Subbarayan, Ganesh, Handwerker, Carol A., Journal of Electronic Materials 50 6615-6628 (2021), DOI: 10.1007/s11664-021-09256-1
- Analysis of enargite thin films synthesized from carbon-containing and novel carbon-free processing methods Joseph Andler, Xianyi Hu, Scott A. McClary, Rakesh Agrawal , Carol A. Handwerker, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 143 (2022) 106512.
- MSE 230 Structure and Properties of Materials
- ENGR 103 - Materials that Impact our Lives: Electronics, Energy and the Environment
- MSE430 and MSE 440 Materials Processing and Design I/II
- MSE 589 Archaeology and Materials
- MSE 597 Design for Sustainable Electronics