William Crossley

William A. Crossley

1995 - Professor

Degrees

B.S.E. University of Michigan, Aerospace Engineering, 1990
M. S. Arizona State University, Aerospace Engineering, 1992
Ph.D. Arizona State University, Aerospace Engineering, 1995

Contact

701 W. Stadium Ave.
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045

Office: ARMS 3209
Office Phone: +1 765 49-62872
Email: crossley@purdue.edu
Webpage: http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~crossley/

Interests

Optimization
Rotorcraft and aircraft design
Structure design

Awards and Major Appointments

Awards
AAE Elmer Bruhn Teaching Award, 2012
AAE Elmer Bruhn Teaching Award, 2009
Purdue University College of Engineering A.A. Potter Award, 2007
AAE Elmer Bruhn Teaching Award, 2006
Member of selection for the AFRL/VA Foulois and Perkins Awards, Apr. 2004
AAE Elmer Bruhn Teaching Award, 2003

Memberships & Committees

Associate Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Associate Fellow, International Society for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
NASA Inventions and Contributions Board recognition for "outstanding scientific or technical contributions that are significant to aeronautics and space activities," 2005
Lead facilitator for AFRL/VA in-house aircraft mission development mini-workshop, May 2004.
Participant in USAF Workshop on Robustness for Systems Engineering, sponsored by the Undersecretary for Acquisition. Invitation only workshop. Jun. 2004.
Lead facilitator at DARPA-AFRL Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) Mission Workshop, Jun. 2004.
Co-coordinator for Boeing / Academia / NASA workshop for System of Systems, St. Louis, MO, Jun. 2004.
Lead facilitator at AFSPC/DARPA Reconfigurable Morphing Space Systems Workshop, Oct. 2003.

Research Areas

Professor Crossley's major research interests are in the area of design methodologies and optimization, with emphasis on the use of genetic algorithms for aerospace engineering design problems. Techniques like the genetic algorithm will allow optimization-like techniques to be applied in the conceptual phase of design, which traditionally has been dominated by qualitative or subjective decision making. There are two major areas of research being pursued by Professor Crossley and his students - genetic algorithm roles in aerospace design and optimization, and genetic algorithm methodology development. Other research topics related to aerospace design are also investigated.


Topology Design of Rotor Blades for Aerodynamic and Structural Concerns. This computational research effort strives to develop a rotor blade design strategy with the potential to improve the aerodynamic, structural, and dynamic performance of advanced rotorcraft. This work investigates the Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a means to combine aerodynamic and structural concerns for topology design of rotor blades. Inverse airfoil design and optimal airfoil design are receiving much attention in both industry and academia; the same holds true for structural optimization. The combination of the two concerns for topology design has not been fully addressed. A multidisciplinary approach combining structural and aerodynamic concerns for optimal topology design of rotor blades provides potential benefit to the rotorcraft design process. The aerodynamic optimization portion of this research was cited in the technical research highlights of the NASA Ames Research Center, Rotor Aeromechanics Branch for 1999. Contributions in the structural portion of the research have demonstrated capabilities for discrete (on/off) topology, most notably handing connectivity issues and performing design of sections under combinations of bending and torsion, that several authors had previously claimed were not possible.



Genetic Algorithm Issues for Optimal Smart Actuator Placement. This research is investigating approaches for smart actuator placement to provide aircraft maneuverability without requiring hinged flaps or other control surfaces. The effort supports many of the goals of the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization focus efforts in NASA's Aircraft Morphing program. Computational studies are being conducted to allow comparison and selection of appropriate techniques for posing and solving an actuator placement problem. The work began with a geometrically simple wing model, but the approaches identified during this research have been applied to complete aircraft configurations. The problem statement and algorithm application are being used at NASA Langley by researchers working on the Aircraft Morphing Program. Research in this area has been cited twice as technical highlights for the NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch; once in 1998 and once in 1999. Improved Satellite Constellation Design and Optimization. Improving satellite constellation design is of great interest to any users of satellite communication (e.g. cellular phones, television), location (e.g. global positioning system) and/or observation (e.g. weather). Many of today's satellite constellation designs rely on the "Walker Constellations," a series of designs developed in 1970, which have rarely been improved upon. These constellations make use of symmetric constellations with circular orbits. Using the genetic algorithm to search the constellation design space has begun to yield constellation designs not previously envisioned but with performance equal to or greater than comparable Walker or "streets of coverage" constellations. Research is ongoing for sparse coverage constellations, constellation build-up problems, multiobjective constellation concerns and elliptic orbit constellations. The Aerospace Corporation performs satellite constellation design for its US Air Force customers using the design techniques developed as part of this research. In one of these studies, a multiobjective GA approach was able to generate constellation designs that outperformed constellations that had been under development for several months. The GA was able to do this in a matter of days.



Development of a Genetic Algorithm for Conceptual Design of Aircraft. Air vehicle conceptual design appears to be a promising area for application of the genetic algorithm as an approach to help automate part of the design process. Because the GA-based approach to conceptual design helps to reduce the number of qualitative decisions needed from the design team, this appears to have great potential for application to aircraft design. Work has been extensively conducted for helicopters, some additional work has been conducted for high-speed VTOL rotorcraft (e.g. tilt-rotor and tilt-wing aircraft), and work is currently underway for fixed-wing aircraft. The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center supports this research.



Methods to Assess Commercial Aircraft Technologies. Increasing competition in the commercial aircraft industry requires that airframe manufacturers be judicious with technology research and development efforts. Currently, technology development strategies for commercial aircraft appear to be lacking; this research presents a methodology to assess new technologies in terms of both cost and performance. This methodology encompasses technologies that can be applied to the aircraft design and technologies that improve the development, manufacturing, and testing of the aircraft. This differs from past studies that focused upon a small number of performance-based technologies. The method is divided into two phases. The first phase evaluates technologies based on cost measures alone. The second phase redesigns an aircraft with new technologies, assesses the relative importance of performance-based technologies, and recognizes technology interactions using Taguchi's Design of Experiments. For a wide-body transport aircraft example, the methodology identifies promising technologies for further study. Recommendations and conclusions about the methodology are made based on the results. This work was done in collaboration with the Configuration Engineering and Analysis group at Boeing Commercial Aircraft. Response Surface Methods as Approximation Models for Optimization. Approximation techniques, particularly the use of response surfaces (RS), have achieved wide popularity in engineering design optimization, especially for problems with computationally expensive analyses. The chief aims of using RS is to lower the cost of optimization and to smooth out the problem (e.g., for analyses solved iteratively, with a convergence tolerance). In one part of this research effort, an investigation of RS methods to minimize drag of a turbofan nacelle is being pursued in conjunction with engineers at Allison Advanced Development Company. This approach can improve the nacelle design practices at AADC by providing a formalized optimization framework for this CFD-based design exercise. The use of RS raises practical questions about the solution accuracy and computational expense. In particular, building response surfaces may involve a prohibitively large number of high-fidelity function evaluations, depending on problem dimensionality. In another part of this research effort, a computational study to address questions of expense and accuracy was undertaken with researchers in the Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. Important observations about the impact of constructing and using response surfaces for moderately high-dimensional problems were made. NASA researchers are using the RS models constructed during this portion of the research to further investigate techniques to manage approximation models in engineering optimization.

Publications

Crossley, W. A., Skillen, M. D., Frommer, J. B., and Roth, B. D., "Morphing Aircraft Sizing Using Design Optimization," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 2011, pp. 612-622.

DeLaurentis, D. A., Crossley, W. A., and Mane, M., "A Taxonomy to Guide Systems of Systems Decision-Making in Air Transportation Problems," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 48, No. 3, May-Jun. 2011, pp. 760-770.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W. A., "Concurrent Aircraft Design and Allocation for On-Demand Air Transportation with Uncertain Operations," Journal of Aircraft, to appear, 2012.

Howoong, N., Crossley, W.A., and Lyrintzis, A. S., "Morphing Airfoil Design for Minimum Drag and Actuation Energy Including Aerodynamic Work," Journal of Aircraft, to appear, 2012.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W. A., “Measuring the Importance of Aircraft Type and Operational Factors on Cost Feasibility of Air Taxi Service,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 44, No.4, July-Aug. 2009, pp. 1222-1230.

Nusawardhana, Zak, S. H., and Crossley, W. A., "Discrete-Time Synergetic Optimal Control of Nonlinear Systems," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1561-1574, Nov.-Dec. 2008.

Lamberson, S., and Crossley, W., "Design of Multifunctional Structure with Embedded Electronic Circuitry Using Composite Laminate Optimization Techniques," Engineering Optimization, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 937-953, Oct. 2008.

Raghavan, S., Imbrie, P. K., and Crossley, W. A., "The Spectral Analysis of R Lines and Vibronic Sidebands in the Emission Spectrum of Ruby Using Genetic Algorithms," Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 62, No. 7, pp. 759–765, July 2008.

Hassan, R. A., and Crossley, W. A., "Spacecraft Reliability-Based Design Optimization under Uncertainty Including Discrete Variables," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 45, No. 2, March-April 2008, pp. 394-405.

Hassan, R. A., and Crossley, W. A., "Approach to Discrete Optimization Under Uncertainty: The Population-Based Sampling Genetic Algorithm," AIAA Journal, Vol. 45, No. 11, 2007, pp. 2799-2809.

Namgoong, H., Crossley, W. A., Lyrintizis, A. S., "Aerodynamic Optimization of a Morphing Airfoil using Energy as an Objective," AIAA Journal, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2007, pp. 2113-2124.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W. A., Nusawardhana, "System of Systems Inspired Aircraft Sizing and Airline Resource Allocation via Decomposition," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 44, No. 4, July-Aug. 2007, pp. 1222-1235.

Nusawardhana, Zak, S. H., and Crossley, W. A., "Nonlinear Synergetic Optimal Controllers," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 30, No. 4, July-Aug. 2007, pp. 1134-1147.

Conference Proceedings, Presentations, Invited Lectures

Tetzloff, I., and Crossley, W., "Evaluating Market and Environmental Impacts of an N+3 Supersonic Aircraft," AIAA-2011-0463, 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Jan. 4-7, 2011.

Moolchandani, K. A., Agusdinata, D. B., Mane, M., Crossley, W. A., and DeLaurentis, D. A., "Impact of Development Rates of Future Aircraft Technologies on Fleet-Wide Environmental Emissions," AIAA-2011-6843, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 20-22, 2011.

Davendralingham, N., and Crossley, W. A., "Robust Optimization of Aircraft Design and Airline Network Design Incorporating Economic Trends," AIAA-2011-6927, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 20-22, 2011.

van Seeters, P., and Crossley, W., "Revisiting the Boeing B-47 and AVRO Vulcan Configuration Comparison with Observations Relevant to New Aircraft Concepts ??? Part 2," AIAA-2011-6934, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 20-22, 2011.

Roy, S., and Crossley, W., "Hybrid Approach for Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization in Search of Greener Aircraft," AIAA-2011-6961, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 20-22, 2011.

Kolencherry, N., and Crossley, W., "Multi-Fidelity Optimization Strategies Using Genetic Algorithms and Sequential Kriging Surrogates," AIAA-2012-0152, 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Jan. 9-12, 2012

Crossley, W., “Evaluating Future Environmental Impact of US Aviation via System Dynamics and Resource Allocation,” INFORMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Nov. 7-10, 2010. (abstract only)

Mane, M., Crossley, W., and DeLaurentis, D., “Revenue-based Allocation Model for Fleet-level Environmental Impacts of Airline Operations,” INFORMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Nov. 7-10, 2010. (abstract only)

Tetzloff, I., and Crossley, W., “Decomposition Approach for Aircraft Allocation under Environmental Considerations,” INFORMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, Nov. 7-10, 2010. (abstract only)

Mane, M., Agusdinata, D., Crossley, W., and DeLaurentis, D., “Fleet-Wide Environmental Impacts of Future Aircraft Technologies,” AIAA-2010-9207, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 13-15, 2010.

Haderlie, J., and Crossley, W., “Multiobjective Optimization of a Supersonic-Inlet Bypass-Duct Splitter via Surrogate Modeling,” AIAA-2010-9170, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 13-15, 2010.

Davendralingham, N., Crossley, W., and Nusawardhana, “An Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach to Aircraft Allocation Incorporating Passenger Demand Models,” AIAA-2010-9203, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 13-15, 2010.

Tetzloff, I., and Crossley, W., “Impact of Future Generation Aircraft on Fleet-Level Environmental Metrics,” AIAA-2010-9205, 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 13-15, 2010.

Lehner, S., Lurati, L., Bower, G., Cramer, E., Crossley, W., Engelsen, F., Kroo, I., Smith, S., Willcox, K., “Advanced Multidisciplinary Optimization Techniques for Efficient Subsonic Aircraft Design,” AIAA-2010-1321, 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, Jan. 4-7, 2010.

Zhao, J., Tetzloff, I. J., Tyagi, A., Dikshit, P., Mane, M., Agusdinata, D., Crossley, W. A., and DeLaurentis, D., “Assessing New Aircraft and Technology Impacts on Fleet-Wide Environmental Metrics including Future Scenarios,” AIAA-2010-0282, 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, Jan. 4-7, 2010.

Dikshit, P. and Crossley, W., “Single-Valued Noise Metric Suitable for Fleet-Wide Studies,” AIAA-2009-6937, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Haderlie, J. and Crossley, W., “A Parametric Approach to Supercritical Airfoil Design Optimization,” AIAA-2009-6950, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Tyagi, A. and Crossley, W., “Investigating Long- Range Aircraft Staging for Environment, Economic and Travel Time Impacts,” AIAA-2009-6956, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Davendralingam, N. and Crossley, W., “Concurrent Aircraft Design and Airline Network Design Incorporating Passenger Demand Models,” AIAA-2009-6971, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Nusawardhana and Crossley, W., “Concurrent Aircraft Design and Variable Resource Allocation in Large Scale Fleet Networks,” AIAA-2009-6977, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Tetzloff, I. and Crossley, W., “An Allocation Approach to Investigate New Aircraft Concepts and Technologies on Fleet-Level Metrics,” AIAA-2009-6979, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

van Seeters, P. and Crossley, W., “Revisiting the Boeing B- 47 and AVRO Vulcan Configuration Comparison with Observations Relevant to New Aircraft Concepts,” AIAA-2009-6998, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Mane, M. and Crossley, W., “Concurrent Aircraft Design and Resource Allocation for On- Demand Air Transportation with Uncertain Trip Demand,” AIAA-2009-7007, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Lenz, A. and Crossley, W., “Simple Uncertainty Propagation for Early Design Phase Aircraft Sizing,” AIAA-2009-7027, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Lehner, S., and Crossley, W., “Hybrid Optimization for a Combinatorial Aircraft Design Problem,” AIAA-2009-7116, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), Sep. 21-23, 2009.

Mane, M., *Tetzloff, I., and Crossley, W., “Assessing Market and Environmental Impacts of an N+3 Supersonic Aircraft,” INFORMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Oct. 11-14, 2009. (abstract only)

Mane, M., and Crossley, W., “Environmental Impact of Technology Improvements of Aircraft and Operational Changes of Airlines,” INFORMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Oct. 11-14, 2009. (abstract only)

Crossley, W. A., “System-of-Systems Inspired Optimization Problems: Experiments in Formulation and Solution – part III,” Research Consortium for Multidisciplinary System Design: Fourth Annual Workshop, Stanford, CA, June 12, 2009.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W., "Concurrent Aircraft Design and Allocation for On-demand Air Transportation via Decomposition," INFORMS Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, Oct. 12-15, 2008.

Frommer, J., and Crossley, W., "Aircraft Sizing and Allocation as a System-Of-Systems Problem via Surrogates and Multiobjective Design," INFORMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Nov. 4-7, 2007. (abstract only)

Mane, M., and Crossley, W., "Aircraft Sizing and Allocation as a System-Of-Systems Problem via Surrogates and Multiobjective Design," INFORMS Annual meeting, Seattle, WA, Nov. 4-7, 2007 (abstract only)

Raghavan, S., Imbrie, P. K., and Crossley, W. A., "Analysis of Photo-Stimulated Luminescence Spectra Using Genetic Algorithms for Stress Measurements in Chromium-Doped Alumina," Society of Engineering Science 45th Annual Technical Meeting, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oct. 12-15, 2008 [http://ses2008.mechse.uiuc.edu/media/pdfs/SES_Abstracts_08.pdf] (abstract only)

Tetzloff, I., and Crossley, W., "Assessing Impacts on Airline Fleet Emissions and Direct Operating Costs through Aircraft Allocations," INFORMS Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, Oct. 12-15, 2008 (abstract only)

Dikshit, P., and Crossley, W., "Impact of Airport Noise Regulations and Noise-reduction Technology on Fleet Allocation," INFORMS Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, Oct 12-15, 2008 (abstract only)

Lehner, S., and Crossley, W., "Combinatorial Optimization to include Greener Technologies in a Short- to Medium-Range Commercial Aircraft," ICAS 2008-4.10.2, ICAS 2008 Congress including the 8th AIAA 2008 ATIO Conference, Anchorage, AK, Sep. 15-18, 2008.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W., "Concurrent Aircraft Design and Resource Allocation under Uncertainty," ICAS 2008-10.6.1, ICAS 2008 Congress including the 8th AIAA 2008 ATIO Conference, Anchorage, AK, Sep. 15-18, 2008.

Mane, M., and Crossley, W., "Bases of Operation Concept for On-Demand Operations," ICAS 2008-8.6.4, ICAS 2008 Congress including the 8th AIAA 2008 ATIO Conference, Anchorage, AK, Sep. 15-18, 2008.

Chepko, A., de Weck, O., Crossley, W., Santiago-Maldonado, E., Linne, D., "A Modeling Framework for Applying Discrete Optimization to System Architecture Selection," AIAA-2008-6058, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, BC, Sep. 10-12, 2008.

Iqbal, L., Crossley, W., Weisshaar, T. and Sullivan, J., "Higher Level Design Methods Applied to the Conceptual Design of an MALE UAV," AIAA-2008-5908, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, BC, Sep. 10-12, 2008.

Chepko, A., de Weck, O., Linne, D., Santiago-Maldonado, E., Crossley, W., "Architecture Modeling of In- Situ Oxygen Production and its Impacts on Lunar Campaigns," AIAA-2008-7823, AIAA SPACE 2008 Conference & Exposition, San Diego, CA, Sep. 9-11, 2008.

Skillen, M. and Crossley, W., "A Matlab-Based Object-Oriented Process Architecture for Rapid Generation of Unconventional Wing Finite Element Models," AIAA-2008-2160, 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Schaumburg, IL, Apr. 7-10, 2008.

Skillen, M. and Crossley, W., "Implementation of Structural Sizing Strategies for Morphing Wing Structures Using Common Toolsets," AIAA-2008-2048, 16th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference, Schaumburg, IL, Apr. 7-10, 2008.

Crossley, W. A., "System-of-Systems Inspired Optimization Problems: Experiments in Formulation and Solution," Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, March 24, 2008.

Skillen, M. and Crossley, W., "Conceptual Morphing Aircraft Sizing Using a Multi-Level Optimization Strategy," AIAA-2008-0166, 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 7-10, 2008.

Mane, M. and Crossley, W., "An Approach to Predict Impact of Demand Acceptance on Air Taxi Operations," AIAA-2007-7787, 7th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, Sep. 18-20, 2007.

Mane, M. and Crossley, W., "Probabilistic Approach for Selection of Maintenance Facilities for Air Taxi Operations," AIAA-2007-7786, 7th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, Sep. 18-20, 2007.

Nusawardhana, and Crossley, W., "A Theoretical Framework of Vehicle Design for Multi-Modal Dynamic System-of-Systems," AIAA-2007- 2944, AIAA Infotech@Aerospace 2007 Conference and Exhibit, Rohnert Park, CA, May 7-10, 2007.


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