Kathleen Howell

Kathleen C. Howell

1982 - Distinguished Hsu Lo Professor of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering

Degrees

B. S., Iowa State University, Aerospace Engineering, 1973
M. S., Stanford University, Aeronautical & Astronautical Engineering, 1977
Ph.D., Stanford University, Aeronautical & Astronautical Sciences, 1983

Contact

701 W. Stadium Ave.
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045

Office: ARMS 3233
Office Phone: +1 765 49-45786
Email: howell@purdue.edu
Webpage: https://engineering.purdue.edu/people/kathleen.howell.1/

Interests

Orbit mechanics
Spacecraft dynamics, control
Trajectory optimization

Awards and Major Appointments

Fellow, AIAA 2013

W.A. Gustafson Award for Outstanding Teaching 2012

Inducted into Iowa State University Department of Aerospace Engineering Hall of Fame 2011

A.A. Potter Award, Purdue University, 1984 and 2011

College of Engineering Leadership Award, Purdue University 2010

Fellow, American Astronautical Society

American Astronautical Society (AAS) "President's Recognition Award": For Technical Achievement and Contributions to the Society and the Profession, August 2007

John V. Breakwell Memorial Award, International Astronautical Federation, IAC Astrodynamics Symposium, IAF World Congress, Hyderabad, India, 2007

Named as one of '50 Most Important Women in Science' by Discover Magazine, Nov. 2002

Dirk Brouwer Award, AAS, 2004.

The Elmer F. Bruhn Teaching Award, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1995, 2002, 2005, 2010

'Best Paper' Award at three AAS/AIAA conferences

TRIANA Mission Achievement Award, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002

Presidential Young Investigator Award 1984, presented by Ronald Reagan

Research Areas

In the area of astrodynamics, the complex missions envisioned in the next few decades will demand innovative spacecraft trajectory concepts and efficient design tools for analysis and implementation. In support of such plans, current research efforts focus on spacecraft navigation and maneuver requirements, and mission planning, both in the neighborhood of the Earth and in interplanetary space. Some sample projects are mentioned below.

Much recent research activity has involved libration point orbits in the three- and four-body problems. The n-body problem in orbital mechanics generally considers trajectory solutions when (n-1) gravity fields are significant. Spacecraft in the vicinity of libration points thus operate in an environment in which gravity forces due to two or three (or more) celestial bodies may result in trajectories that appear as three-dimensional, quasi-periodic Lissajous paths. Such three-dimensional trajectories are of considerable interest in connection with any future lunar operations. In the near term, missions involving libration point satellites are included in a number of programs that the U. S. is planning with international partners. Technical studies involve trajectory design and optimization including optimal control strategies for out-of-plane motion in consideration of communication and other operational specifications. Analyses of station-keeping requirements for such trajectories are also currently under study.

The subject of optimal transfer trajectories is of considerable importance and rapidly growing in complexity as well. New types of problems now facing mission designers render standard optimization strategies inadequate, particularly for application in the n-body problem. Nominal transfer trajectory determination and optimization is the focus of an expanding investigation. Various projects range from development of new computational techniques to application of geometric nonlinear dynamical systems theory to these problems.

A related problem of interest involves Earth orbiting vehicles that repeatedly pass close to the Moon. Such trajectories use lunar gravity to effect trajectory changes. Not only can such a swingby aid in minimizing mission fuel requirements, it also creates trajectory options that may otherwise be impossible. Analysis is complicated, however, by the strong solar perturbation. Multi-conic analysis has proven promising and work is continuing to develop tools to make optimal trajectory design efficient and accurate. Design strategies can also be extended to other multi-body systems. Such applications are under considerations as well.

Publications

Folta, D., Woodard, M., Howell, K., Patterson, C., and Schlei, W., "Applications of Multi-Body Dynamical Environments: The ARTEMIS Transfer Trajectory Design," Acta Astronautica, Vol. xx, 2012, pp. xxx-xxx, available online http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.11.007.

Craig Davis, D., and Howell, K., "Characterization of Trajectories Near the Smaller Primary in the Restricted Problem for Applications," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 35, No.1, January-February 2012, pp. 116-128.

Howell, K.C., Davis, D.C., and Haapala, A.F., "Application of Periapse Maps for the Design of Trajectories Near the Smaller Primary in Multi-Body Regimes," Journal of Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Special Issue: Mathematical Methods Applied to the Celestial Mechanics of Artificial Satellites, Vol. 2012, Article ID 351759, doi:10.1155/2012/351759. (Invited for submission)

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., "Investigating the Design Space for Solar Sail Trajectories in the Earth-Moon System," The Open Aerospace Engineering Journal, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 11-29.

Craig Davis, D., and Howell, K., "Trajectory Evolution in the Multi-Body Problem with Applications in the Saturnian System," Acta Astronautica, Vol. 69, 2011, pp. 1038-1049. (Invited) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.07.007.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., "Numerical Techniques for Generating and Refining Solar Sail Trajectories," Advances in Space Research (ASR) Special Issue: "Solar Sailing: Concepts, Technology, Missions,” Vol. 48, Issue 11, 2011, pp. 1848-1857. DOI information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2011.04.012

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., "Generating Solar Sail Trajectories in the Earth-Moon System Using Augmented Finite-Difference Methods," International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 2011, Article ID 476197, 13 Pages, DOI information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/476197

Ozimek, M., and Howell, K., “Low-Thrust Transfers in the Earth-Moon System Including Applications to Libration Point Orbits,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, March-April 2010, pp. 533-549.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., and Howell, K.C., “Design of Optimal Low-Thrust Lunar Pole-Sitter Missions,” Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 58, No. 1, January-March 2010.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., and Howell, K., “Advanced Modeling of Optimal Low-Thrust Pole-Sitter Trajectories,” Acta Astronautica, Vol. 67, No. 7-8, October- November 2010, pp. 991-1001. (Invited) DOI information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.04.024

Ozimek, M., Grebow, D., and Howell, K., “A Collocation Approach for Computing Solar Sail Lunar Pole-Sitter Orbits,” The Open Aerospace Engineering Journal, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 65-75.

Howell, K. and Millard, L., "Control of Satellite Imaging Formations in Multi-Body Regimes," Acta Astronautica, Vol. 64, Nos. 5-6, March-April 2009, pp. 554-570, DOI information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.10.008

Yam, C., Craig Davis, D., Longuski, J., Howell, K., and Buffington, B., “Saturn Impact Trajectories for Cassini End-of-Mission,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 46, No. 2, March-April 2009, pp. 353-364.

Ozimek, M., Grebow, D., and Howell, K., “Design of Solar Sail Trajectories with Applications to Lunar South Pole Coverage,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 6, November-December 2009, pp. 1884-1897.

Millard, L., and Howell, K.C., "Optimal Reconfiguration Maneuvers for Spacecraft Imaging Arrays in Multi-Body Regimes," Acta Astronautica, Vol. 63, Nos. 11-12, December 2008, pp. 1283-1298. DOI information: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.05.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., Howell, K., and Folta, D., "Multi-Body Orbit Architectures for Lunar South Pole Coverage," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 45, No. 2, March-April 2008, pp. 344-358.

Millard, L. and Howell, K., "Control of Interferometric Spacecraft Arrays for (u,v) Plane Coverage in Multi-Body Regimes," Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 56, No. 1, January-March 2008.

Marchand, B., Howell, K., and Wilson, R., "An Improved Corrections Process for Constrained Trajectory Design in the n-Body Problem," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2007, pp. 884-897.

Howell, K., Beckman, M., Patterson, C., and Folta, D., "Representations of Invariant Manifolds for Applications in Three-Body Systems," Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 1, January-March 2006, pp. 69-93.

Howell, K.C., and Kakoi, M., "Transfers between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth Systems using Manifolds and Transit Orbits," Acta Astronautica, Vol. 59, 2006, pp. 367-380.

Marchand, B.G., and Howell, K.C., "Control Strategies for Formation Flight in the Vicinity of the Libration Points," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 28, No. 6, November-December 2005, pp. 1210-1219.

Howell, K.C., and Marchand. B.G., "Natural and Non-Natural Spacecraft Formations Near the L1 and L2 Libration Points in the Sun-Earth/Moon Ephemeris System," Dynamical Systems: an International Journal, Special Issue: "Dynamical Systems in Dynamical Astronomy and Space Mission Design," Vol. 20, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 149-173. (Invited and Refereed)

Books Edited
Crassidis, J., Junkins, J.L., Markley, L., and Howell, K.C., Proceedings, "The Malcolm Shuster Symposium," Vol. 106, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, June 12-16, 2005.

D'Amario, L., Hoots, F., Howell, K., and Williams, B., Proceedings of the 2005 AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Vol. 103, Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Lake Tahoe, California, August 2005.

Conference Proceedings, Presentations, Invited Lectures

Pavlak, T., Howell, K.C., and Folta, D.C., "Adaptive Trajectory Design Incorporating Multiple Dynamical Regimes," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August, 2012.

Heritier, A., and Howell, K.C., "Natural Regions Near the Libration Points Suitable to Maintain Multiple Spacecraft," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August, 2012.

Kokini, K., Buzzanell, P., Chapple, C., Hirsch, A., Howell, K., "Diversity Catalysts: Educating the STEM Community on the Way to Institutional Transformation," Women in Engineering ProActive Network (WEPAN), 2012 WEPAN Conference, Columbus, Ohio, June 25-27, 2012.

Folta, D.C., Pavlak, T., Howell, K.C., and Woodfork, M., "Earth-Moon Libration Stationkeeping: Theory, Modeling, and Operations," 1ST IAA/AAS Conference on the Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal, March 19-21, 2012.

Vaquero, M., and Howell, K.C., "Resonant Orbits in the Earth-Moon System," 1ST IAA/AAS Conference on the Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal, March 19-21, 2012.

Chappaz, L., Melosh, H.J., Vaquero, M., and Howell, K.C., "Material Transfer from the Surface of Mars to Phobos and Diemos," 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, March 19-23 2012.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., "Flight-Path Control for Solar Sail Spacecraft," 22nd AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, January 29-February 2, 2012.

Schlei, W., and Howell, K.C., "Visual Analytics and Preliminary Trajectory Design," 22nd AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, January 29-February 2, 2012.

Knutson, A. and Howell, K.C., "Novel Method to Incorporate Attitude Dynamic Contribution in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem," 22nd AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, January 29-February 2, 2012.

Chappaz, L., Melosh, H.J., Vaquero, M., and Howell, K.C., "Transfer of Impact Ejecta Material Transfer from the Surface of Mars to Phobos and Diemos," 22nd AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, January 29-February 2, 2012.

Pavlak, T.A., and Howell, K.C., "Evolution of the Out-of-Plane Amplitude for Quasi-Periodic Trajectories in the Earth-Moon System," IAF 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, October 3-7, 2011.

Stuart, J.R., and Howell, K.C., "Trajectory Tour of the Trojan Asteroids Generated via an Optimal Low-Thrust Algorithm," IAF 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, October 3-7, 011.

Heritier, A., and Howell, K., "Natural Regions Near the Sun-Earth Libration Points Suitable for Space Observations with Large Formations," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Girdwood, Alaska, July 31-August 4, 2011.

Vaquero, M., and Howell, K., "Poincar? Maps and Resonant Orbits in the Restricted Three-Body Problem," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Girdwood, Alaska, July 31-August 4, 2011.

Pavlak, T., and Howell, K.C., "Strategy for Long-Term Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping in the Earth-Moon System," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Girdwood, Alaska, July 31-August 4, 2011.

Whittinghill, D., Joseph, N., Bertoline, G., Cayon, L., and Howell, K., "Work-in-Progress: 3D stereoscopic visualization as a tool for teaching astronomy concepts," 2011 Annual Conference, American Society for Engineering Education, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 26-29, 2011.

Howell, K.C., Davis, D. C., and Haapala, A.F., "Application of Periapse Maps for the Design of Trajectories Operating Near the Smaller Primary in Multi-Body Regimes,” 6th International Workshop and Advanced School: “Spacecraft Dynamics and Control," Research Centre of Aerospace Science and Technology, University of Beira Interior, Covilh?, Portugal, March 2011.

Short, C.R., Howell, K.C., and Tricoche, X.M., "Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the Restricted Three-Body Problem," 21st AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 2011.

Haapala, A.F., and Howell, K.C., "Trajectory Design Using Poincar? Maps and Invariant Manifolds," 21st AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 2011.

Rausch, R. and Howell, K., "Semi-Autonomous Stationkeeping of Collocated Geostationary Satellites Using Relative Orbit Control," 6th International Workshop on Satellite Constellation and Formation Flying (IWSCFF 2010), Taipei, Taiwan, November 2010.

Folta, D., Woodard, M., Howell, K., Patterson, C., and Schlei, W., "Applications of Multi-Body Dynamical Environments: The ARTEMIS Transfer Trajectory Design," IAF 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, September 2010.

Craig Davis, D., and Howell, K., “Long Term Evolution of Trajectories Near the Smaller Primary in the Restricted Problem,” 20th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Diego, California, February 2010.

Folta, D.C., Pavlak, T.A., Howell, K.C., Woodard, M.A., and Woodfork, D.W., “Stationkeeping of Lissajous Trajectories in the Earth-Moon System with Applications to ARTEMIS,” 20th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Diego, California, February 2010.

Olikara, Z.P., and Howell, K.C., “Computation of Quasi-Periodic Invariant Tori in the Restricted Three-Body Problem,” 20th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Diego, California, February 2010.

Marchand, B.G., Scarritt, S.K., Pavlak, T.A., Howell, K.C., and Weeks, M.W., “Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-Earth Injection Design Options,” 20th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, San Diego, California, February 2010.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., “Numerical Methods to Generate Solar Sail Trajectories,” Second International Symposium on Solar Sailing, Brooklyn, New York, July 2010.

Stuart, J., Ozimek, M., and Howell, K.C., “Optimal, Low-Thrust, Path-Constrained Transfers Between Libration Point Orbits Using Invariant Manifolds,” AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Toronto, Canada, August 2010.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., “Trajectory Control for a Solar Sail Spacecraft in an Offset Lunar Orbit,” IAF 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, September 2010.

Craig Davis, D., and Howell, K., “Trajectory Evolution in the Multi-Body Problem with Applications in the Saturnian System,” IAF 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, September 2010.

Folta, D., Woodard, M., Howell, K., Patterson, C., and Schlei, W., “Applications of Multi-Body Dynamical Environments: The ARTEMIS Transfer Trajectory Design,” IAF 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, September 2010.

Rausch, R. and Howell, K., “Semi-Autonomous Stationkeeping of Collocated Geostationary Satellites Using Relative Orbit Control,” 6th International Workshop on Satellite Constellation and Formation Flying (IWSCFF 2010), Taipei, Taiwan, November 2010.

Millard, L., and Howell, K., “Agent-Based Modeling Techniques for Control of Satellite Imaging Arrays in Multi-Body Regimes,” IAF 60th International Astronautical Congress, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, October 2009.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., and Howell, K., “Advanced Modeling of Optimal Low-Thrust Pole-Sitter Trajectories,” IAF 60th International Astronautical Congress, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, October 2009.

Ozimek, M., Grebow, D., and Howell, K., “A Collocation Approach for Computing Solar Sail Lunar Pole-Sitter Orbits,” AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialists Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 2009.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., “Accessing the Design Space for Solar Sails in the Earth-Moon System,” AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialists Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August 2009.

Meckel et al., “Purdue’s Engineer of 2020: The Journey,” ASEE 2009 Annual Conference and Exposition, Austin, Texas, June 2009.

Folta, D., and Howell, K., "Analysis of Invariant Manifold Intersections for ARTEMIS Mission Design," SIAM Dynamical Systems Conference, Snowbird, Utah, May 2009.

Vavrina, M., and Howell, K.C., "Multiobjective Optimization of Low-Thrust Trajectories using a Genetic Algorithm Hybrid," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, February 2009.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., and Howell, K.C., "Design of Low-Thrust Lunar Pole-Sitter Missions," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, February 2009.

Millard, L., and Howell, K.C., "Decentralized Optimization for Control of Satellite Imaging Formations in Complex Regimes," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, February 2009.

Wawrzyniak, G., and Howell, K., "The Solar Sail Lunar Relay Station: An Application of Solar Sails in the Earth-Moon System," IAF 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, September 2008.

Ozimek, M., Grebow, D., and Howell, K., "Solar Sails and Lunar South Pole Coverage," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 2008.

Vavrina, M., and Howell, K., "Global Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization through Hybridization of a Genetic Algorithm and a Direct Method," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 2008.

Howell, K., and Craig Davis, D., "Spacecraft Trajectory Design Strategies Based on Close Encounters with the Smaller Primary in a 4-Body Model," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 2008.

Millard, L., and Howell, K., "Control of Telescope-Occulter Arrays in Multi-Body Regimes," AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 2008.

"Euler, Libration Point Orbits, and Space Exploration," Special John V. Breakwell Memorial Lecture, IAF 58th International Astronautical Congress, Hyderabad, India, September 2007.

Howell, K., and Millard, L., "Optimal Reconfiguration Maneuvers for Spacecraft Imaging Arrays in Multi-Body Regimes," IAF 58th International Astronautical Congress, Hyderabad, India, September 2007.

Ozimek, M., and Howell, K., "Low-Thrust Transfers in the Earth-Moon System Including Applications to Libration Point Orbits," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 2007.

Craig Davis, D., Patterson, C., and Howell, K., "Solar Gravity Perturbations to Facilitate Long-Term Orbits: Application to Cassini," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 2007.

Patterson, C., Kakoi, M., Howell, K., Yam, C., and Longuski, J., "500-year Eccentric Orbits for the Cassini Spacecraft within the Saturnian System," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 2007.

Yam, C.H., Davis, D.C., Longuski, J.M., and Howell, K.C., "Saturn Impact Trajectories for Cassini End-of-Life," AAS 07-257, AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Mackinac Island, Michigan, Aug. 19-23, 2007.

"Mission Design Strategies for Libration Point Applications," 6th International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Zurich, Switzerland, July 16-20, 2007.

Howell, K., Grebow, D., and Olikara, Z., "Design Using Gauss’ Perturbing Equations With Applications to Lunar South Pole Coverage," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Sedona, Arizona, January 2007.

Millard, L. and Howell, K., "Control of Interferometric Satellite Arrays for (u,v) Plane Coverage in Multi-Body Regimes," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Sedona, Arizona, January 2007.

Howell, K. and Millard, L., "Control of Satellite Imaging Formations in Multi-Body Regimes," IAF 57th International Astronautical Congress, Valencia, Spain, October 2006, Paper No. IAC-06-C1.8.01.

"Visualization in Mission Design," International Conference in New Trends in Astrodynamics and Applications, NASA Headquarters and Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, August 16-18, 2006.

"Multi-Body Mission Design and Visualization," University of Missouri at Rolla, April 2006.

Grebow, D., Ozimek, M., Howell, K., and Folta, D., "Multi-Body Orbit Architectures for Lunar South Pole Coverage," AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Tampa, Florida, January 2006.

"Spacecraft Mission Design within the Context of High Performance Computing and Visualization," SuperComputing|05, International Conference for High Performance Computing Networking and Storage, Seattle, Washington, November 2005.

Howell, K.C., and Kakoi, M., "Transfers between the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth Systems Using Manifolds and Transit Orbits," IAF 56th International Astronautical Congress, Kukuoka, Japan, October 2005, Paper No. IAC-05-C1.6.01.

Marchand, B.G., Howell, K.C., and Betts, J.T., "Discrete Optimal Control for S/C Formation Keeping Near the Libration Points," AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Conference, Lake Tahoe, California, August 2005.

2004 Brouwer Award Invited Lecture, "Theory of Orbits: Epicycles to Chaos," AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado, January 24, 2005.


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