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Human and Environmental Incident List

List of CIPP associated air contamination incidents reported by Teimouri et al. (2017), Ra et al. (2019), and others to date.

Information presented in the table is verbatim or summarized from the references; Table Notes: nr = not reported in the reference; PERSONAL COMMUNICATION indicates the source contacted co-author Dr. Whelton individually; FOIA indicates records were obtained from an organization by a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) records request. Information obtained from that request, where applicable, was described. Acronyms: DEP = department of environmental protection; DOL = department of labor; DOT = department of transportation; EMS = emergency medical service; HAZMAT = hazardous materials; HVAC = heating ventilation and air conditioning; MH = manhole; MSDS = material safety data sheet; MWRA = Massachusetts Water Resources Authority; PID = photoionization detector; PPE = personal protective equipment; SCBA = self-contained breathing apparatus; USFS = United States Forest Service.

Year Location Styrene Level Special Notes
2018 Moncton, NB (Canada) nr MEDIA REPORT: News report says “the smell isn’t a risk to public safety” that is due to a resin from sewer lining project. The city statement said “the process only should last a total of 24 hours as the resin cures in the sewer pipe, and the sewer workers are aware of the situation and working on mitigating the issue by replacing manhole covers with grated catch basin covers to help alleviate odour”. The city also recommended to ensure p-traps are properly sealed. 
2018 Tennessee, Chattanooga nr FOIA/MEDIA REPORT: Firefighters responded to a report of a gas leak around 8:00 AM at city hall; Employees inside city hall reported smelling a chemical odor, a paint thinner odor, in the building and called 911; Upon arrival, responders ordered the evacuation of city hall as a precaution; No hazards were detected on monitors, but an odor was present. Fire department recognized a similar smell was coming from manholes; The Chattanooga Fire Department determined that a subcontractor for the city's stormwater division had been spraying styrene to line the stormwater pipes underground; Fumes spread through the pipes and into some openings for the pipes underneath city hall; The Fire Chief said that while the styrene the workers used can produce very noticeable fumes, it is non-toxic and does not present a danger to the public. No one was hurt.” Public works responded with 2 crews to flush the lines so that the smell could dissipate. Once that was completed and the building was checked again, all parties were allowed to return.
The mayor issued a public statement: “[City Hall Building] has closed for the remainder of the day, out of an abundance of caution for its employees and any visitors. The building will reopen on Monday….” Also reported was "Last night, a contractor for the city began work on a process called cured-in-place-pipe. Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) is a trenchless rehabilitation process used to repair existing pipelines using a resin (styrene). On rare occasions during the installation process, a distinctive resin-like odor may be detected. The odor will dissipate with exposure to fresh air and there are no residual health effects.'" Parts of the area were blocked off to the public during the investigation while crews from Moccasin Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant ran water through and vented the sewer lines to clear any off-gassing from the CIPP process.”
The fire department was called back to the building later in the morning with occupants complaining of throat irritation and headaches from the smell. Responders discovered that the smell had returned. Fans were then used to apply negative pressure to the manholes until public works could respond back to the scene. Once public works personnel arrived on the scene, City Hall was closed at 1:00 PM to allow public works to properly ventilate the drains and give the building time to allow the smell to dissipate
2018 Florida, Sarasota nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: In March 2018, Sarasota county government had a contractor line a 48 inch diameter pipe of the stormwater system. Styrene based resin was used by contractor. This contractor had conducted other jobs for the county using the same CIPP process. A nearby resident complained of odor through December 2018. The city, when they visited the site in December, confirmed the odor characteristic was similar to that of CIPP. “The odor comes and goes and some county government field inspectors cannot smell it.” In December, the city contacted Purdue University and wanted to know the cause and whether or not there is a health risk to the resident. They also wanted to know about inexpensive field tests they could use and what are the typical signs that the liner has not fully cured. The city reached out to the State, however, they did not have any field meters.
2018 Virginia, Salem nr FOIA/PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: The Fire Department responded to a two story house because of reports of a strange smell. The crew entered with a Q-rae3 (after fresh air cycle) [this is a 4-gas meter]. The homeowner stated that the smell was in the basement and that it started all of a sudden. Firefighters started getting a smell when they entered basement, and it didn’t seem like a natural gas or electrical smell but more of a like spray adhesive, paint type, or maybe dry drain. Several basement rooms had the smell, but the smell seemed to be coming from the unfinished part of the basement. Responders walked the throughout the basement and nothing was picked up on the Q-rae. The resident had an old bathroom that they no longer used, and when firefighters opened the door the smell seemed stronger. The resident had several plastic grocery bags balled up and sitting in sink. Responders picked one up and it seemed like what they had been smelling. Firefighters advised the homeowner of findings and suspected the smell was coming from the sink drain. Resident stated they would pour water, open windows, and let the basement air out. Firefighters advised the resident that no harmful readings were on the monitor. The homeowner called the fire department about 1 hr later to advise that there was a construction company doing work in neighborhood on some water pipes and using some kind of chemical in pipes and that was what the smell was coming from.
2018 Montreal, QB (Canada) nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Building inhabitant in Montreal Canada requested information from Purdue University “about safety of the gas emitted from the resin of CPP processes.” The city contracted out the task of retrofitting a sewage line underneath the person’s house. The … house filled with styrene gas and associated compounds during the three-day process of curing the pipe. A month later, person still smells styrene coming from an unsealed part of the old stone house foundation and claimed it was worse in cold weather. “It’s not as intense as it was, but it gives person headaches and makes person dizzy throughout the day in his own home, even at low concentrations. This is very upsetting and unpleasant to the person.” Person asked: “How worried should I be about the health effects? And how long is it likely to leach gas from the soil under the foundation?”
2018 Mississippi, Hattiesburg nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Mississippi Department of Transportation (DOT) worker visited a steam CIPP worksite and did not approach exhaust emission point that closely. Steam was not added for the first 30 minutes, instead just air blown through the chemical tube. DOT worker got a headache. DOT worker say visible emissions from the exhaust emission point where CIPP workers were standing. Respiratory protection was not observed on CIPP workers.
2018 Washington, Vancouver nr MEDIA REPORT: An odor permeating the air around Riverview Elementary School in Vancouver reportedly caused two teachers outside for playground duty to become sick. Once emergency responders arrived, they were treated and taken to a hospital. Teachers felt faint, dizzy, had nausea and vomited. Before going to hospital teachers complained of a solvent smell, itching in their nose and throat, dizziness, and gagging. Firefighters and medics responded after receiving reports that a smell was causing problems for some of the teachers. Nearby roads were shutdown. The school had students shelter in place and the HVAC system was turned off. Responders were approached by a representative of the city who declared emissions from nearby contractor who was relining a sewer pipe 600 ft away from the school. Contractor, when approached by responders, did not have an MSDS. Responders reported that the contractor was installing a resin a nearby pipe and their system was blowing a plume of gas 30-50 ft into the air. Also noted that the plume emitted would change direction regularly and would lay low near the ground. Firefighters stated that when the inverted atmosphere lifted, the emissions dissipated. Workers were asked if the process could be stopped if needed and contractor said no. Contractors said they perform the jobs regularly and were surprised to hear about issues at the school. Firefighters used a “PID” and 4-gas monitor to test air around the school and didn’t find anything. They concluded that an air inversion caused the styrene from the work crew lay low near the ground. The school superintendent reported that the teachers were outside for several hours and may have been exposed for a long period. Students also noticed the smell, but none reported being bothered by it. CIPP contractor was working nearby. Fire Department hazmat responders believed that a gaseous substance created by the steam treatment wafted toward the school. Fire Department noted the smell of styrene, described as heated Styrofoam. Hazmat crews monitoring the air around the school. Contractors working in the street were interviewed and had no complaints. Firefighters reported the workers had no evidence of symptoms.
2018 Massachusetts, Weymouth “High readings, 6500 ppb” FOIA: Fire department with medical assistance responded to an Early Childhood Development School. Upon arrival, the custodian complained of light headedness and chest pains. Firefighters wore full PPE with SCBA. Personnel observed an acetone type odor in the area. The area was evacuated. A “4-gas meter” was used and did not respond. A new meter was brought onsite (RAE 3000 ppb meter) and fire fighter reported “high readings” up to 6000 ppb. Fire department concluded that the odor was from pipe sealing resin that was being used nearby for sewer pipe repair.
A second complaint was also called in and the fire department responded. Odor in basement was detected. Testing by fire department indicated 4500 ppb. Assumed it was “steam and smoke” being injected into pipe relining nearby by a contractor who was working with city. Fire department concluded an illegal sump pump connection in the basement allowed odor to enter the building.
2018 Oregon, Bend nr MEDIA REPORT/PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident and US Forest Service workers were reportedly exposed to emissions. At Federal building a city contractor doing CIPP work discharged a cloud from a manhole cover 6 ft from a building passive air intake vent. Around noon on the day of the incident, the contactors activated their product and a cloud came out of manhole about 6 ft away from the federal building. The building is 1 of only 2 places in the US to make seed available for all US government agencies, and primarily involves “seed extraction.”. It's a light industrial factory environment (10 employees), emissions went into passive vents that entered interior filtration system (which typically handles indoor dust), some people in facility people were wearing respirators at the time, but other people smelled it. Employees stated the cloud was quite large and enveloped the outside of the warehouse and strong smell inside. 2 of the 10 had some of the symptoms of initial exposure runny eyes/nose and sore throat, 1 persons called in sick for their subsequent night job. USFS thinks 20-40 minutes of exposure before building was evacuated. Federal workers submitted DOL CA-2 worker compensation claims for the incident. All employees were dismissed from work and did not return to work for 4 days. CIPP contractor provided USFS the MSDS for the resin product (not materials emitted or final CIPP). The resin MSDS reportedly contained styrene, titanium dioxide, quartz and numerous proprietary organic peroxides. Federal agency was concerned emissions may adsorbed to filters in the building and worried about chemical exposure to workers. Federal agency purchased and installed all new filters (50) for the building for concern some chemicals may have been trapped on them. The same contractor that was cited by the resident below was involved in the USFS incident. City and contractor claimed to USFS the cloud (from CIPP) is not a problem.
A nearby resident was also reportedly exposed during the same project. “The resident began noticing gases being discharged at the construction site, took pictures while standing nearby. The resident experienced nausea, a loss of hearing, headache, confusion and other symptoms, and she went to a hospital. The city’s plant interceptor line, a reinforced concrete pipe built in the early 1980s, runs along the back boundary of their land, and they granted the city a temporary construction easement to allow access during repairs. Instead of excavating the pipeline, city staff opted to use a process called a cured-in-place pipe. The Bend City Council in June approved a $5.5 million contract with a CIPP company that’s specialized in cured-in-place pipes for more than 45 years. Construction began in September and is expected to wrap up by July 2019. This method is faster and cheaper than digging up the existing line and building a new one. It also means the city doesn’t have to stop sewer access at any point. According to the legal notice, the resident began noticing gases being discharged at the construction site near her home on Nov. 10. She drove over on the adjacent canal road and took several pictures while standing about 20 feet from the manhole. She also tried to talk to workers on-site, but they hid as she approached their vehicles, according to the notice. After about five minutes at the site, the resident returned to her car to drive home. During her drive, she experienced nausea, a burning sensation in her ears, nose and throat, ringing in her ears, a loss of hearing, headache, hypertensive blood pressure and confusion, according to the notice. She sealed her clothes in a bag and went to the emergency room at St. Charles Bend, where she was diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning, according to the notice.”
2018 Michigan, Midland nr FOIA/ PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: On July 18, 2018 residents discovered a strong odor in their home. One inhabitant went to the basement, realized odor was stronger, and reported that they felt like their eyes started burning. The other building inhabitant reported the exposure made them sick such as nausea and gave headache, which lasted for almost a week. They reported the odor smelled like industrial strength contact cement. The building inhabitants called 911 and 911 operators recommended they evacuate. Once outside they noticed about 60 yards from their house workers seemed to be in street. Fire chief, 3 fire trucks, police, and a representative of local chemical company responded. Emergency responders confirmed a strong odor in the house and in the nearby storm drains. Firefighters got no result from their “5-gas meter” or “gas-trac.” A building inhabitant was told they could go to the hospital, but this person did not for concern about the state of the property and their pets were still inside. Emergency responders found that about 2-3 city blocks away workers were lining a sewer. Responders were told by the contractors that “the odor would get worse before it gets better” and the fire department should “fill the drains with water to prevent odors from getting into the house.” Responders told building owners that they talked to workers who said the chemicals were due to lining sewer lines. The fire department filled drains with water and used fans to help expel chemicals from the home. One building inhabitant went to neighbor’s home who had young child to warn them. When visiting their neighbor, no odor in that house was reported. A representative of DOW arrived onsite and conducted air testing the house and found “VOCs in air at 2.3%.” Fire Department advised residents to stay out of the house until the odor dissipated.
2018 New York, Bronxville nr MEDIA REPORT: During 2017 Halloween evening children walked by CIPP installation site near a school. Air smelled like model airplane glue. Air monitoring was not conducted because it was not ordered to be conducted according to a statement by the school superintendent.
2018 Hawaii, Honolulu nr MEDIA REPORT: “Building management at One Archer Lane got numerous complaints Tuesday night about an unusual smell coming from sewer work on South King Street. The city claimed small amounts of the chemical "styrene" are released during construction but does not pose a significant health risk. The city also claimed that someone exposed to the chemical for a long period of time can experience headache, nausea, dizziness, and lightheadedness. Sewer work was to continue from during the evening through tomorrow morning the day the complaints were made.”       
2018 Virginia, Richmond nr MEDIA REPORT: It was estimated at least a dozen residents were exposed by chemicals associated with CIPP work. “Just opening the door to come down here in the basement was like getting hit in the face with it,” described a resident, “It really would be like putting your head in a can of rubber cement. It’s sort of that headache, get a kind of woozy feeling,” she added. Employees at a nearby business described the same strong odor and symptoms: “It just gave us sort of a light-headed feeling, …it really would hit you as soon as you walk in the front door. The inside was sort of thick with this intense smell. It was really unpleasant.” “We want people coming into our businesses feeling safe and welcomed. We don’t want them to come in like is my health at risk?'” An employee of a restaurant that was also impacted vomited after breathing too much of the odor. A health inspector investigated the restaurant and recommended to increase ventilation. A city councilor was involved in the investigation along with the utility, local and state health departments.
2018 New York, New York nr MEDIA REPORT/ PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Numerous complaints of odors associated with nearby CIPP sanitary sewer lining activity. Utility declared “our HAZMAT staff have been called to homes complaining about these odors where we have done relining, which can be strong, and the readings they have taken never showed the presence of component chemicals of concern in the resin used like VOCs above the maximum safe level allowed.” The notice provided to residents created by the DEP declared “Odors released during the lining process may smell similar to modeling glue. These odors, though unpleasant, are not dangerous or toxic. You may alleviate by ventilating the area”. The city utility (Department of Environmental Protection DEP) city health department were involved. A New York State Assemblyman legislative aide indicated the 20 ppm of styrene was the most stringent exposure limit for residents. [NOTE: 20 ppm is a worker exposure limit for styrene and not designed for the general public].
A resident self-surveyed people located on the block in affected buildings. The following list of symptoms reported by the self-surveyed residents were: Headache, eye irritation, soreness in throat, tight feeling in throat, respiratory irritation, feeling dopey, feeling stupid, feeling sick, watering of eyes, burning in eyes and nose, nausea, coughing, itching, dried out and sore nasal passages, throat burning, sensitive eyes. The complete set of the comments from both surveys are below. The data is from two surveys sent out by a resident after each of the two days the CIPP contractor was on the block, March 6 and March 15. The surveys were sent to a mail list that has been used to assess mosquito impact and has a consistent set of responders of about 60-70 individuals representing a cross section of 21 of the 36 townhouses on the block and all 6 of the large apartment buildings. These two odor surveys had 65 responders with an almost universal overlap with the consistent responders to the Mosquito Survey.

Comments Reported by the Resident in an email to the New York City Health Department:

  1. Today marks one week since the work was done. The odor started to dissipate around Thursday, but was still strong for another day at least. Today was the first day I didn't smell anything in our lobby or elevator.
  2. The odors lasted well into Saturday.
  3. Lasted just under a week with sealing off drains and ventilating
  4. Very obnoxious/pervasive for several days in halls, lobby, elevator and eventually dissipated. We received no advance notice/warning so had no idea what it was. Id say: finish the job after warning us first...and then never again!
  5. The first 3 days the odors were terrible, causing eye irritation and headaches. One week later they are still present, though milder. We were told by the city they were non toxic, but according to the information you just sent, that is not true.
  6. Odors lasted all day and into the next day. We received a notification that they are doing the remaining part of the street (western end) on Thursday, March 15.
  7. Residents on top floor noticed it more
  8. It was around the next day too
  9. odors still linger in the building as of 3/13, but dissipating now. Trucks almost outside 320 W 84th so very strong, plus exhaust from truck. Hope truck moves elsewhere!
  10. The odors continue. were actually quite strong
  11. The smells lasted into Sunday. I opened all of the windows on the back of our house. They were strongest in the basement and rose throughput our house.
  12. 3-4 days; FDNY came and said nothing to do except open windows, and that the chemical is NOT TOXIC (???)
  13. the odors lasted until about Monday with all of our windows open. Worried about what will happen this Thursday when they are basically outside our house.
  14. Extraordinarily strong odor... for 3+ days, left windows open and could not use part of the house. Certainly NOT normal, this was severe and we called the City and the contractor etc etc.
  15. Can you please let me know if the scheduled work is cancelled bc you want to check on health concerns? I am making arrangements to have my kids away bc of the Work. So if cancelled I’d love to know in advance.
  16. Work should be postponed until warmer temperatures will allow to open all windows for proper ventilation!
  17. The entryway, lobby and elevator absolutely reeked for almost a week. It smelled worse than paint fumes and the when I spoke with ground floor residents, they said they felt like they were being gassed. This is not OK and the notice I receive today about this bldg being worked on this week has made me extremely anxious for my asthmatic elderly cat and for my own asthma/allergies. This does NOT seem safe!
  18. Tight feeling in throat and respiratory irritation.
  19. Woke up with headaches
  20. All week strong odors giving us headaches, sore throats, feeling dopey and sick!!!!!
  21. When I went outside of the building, I was aware of the noxious odors, but the work had not come in front of our building. I had no bad reaction, but plan to stay way with the completion of work on the block and have warned all in the building - especially the couple expecting a baby. Outside odor was very pungent and strong.
  22. Odor was strongly noted in the lobby only. Lasted one day. Don’t know if the apartment owners on the lobby floor had more physical complaints but would be interesting to find out
  23. We experienced strong fumes, causing watering of eyes and headache. Opened windows and left house from 4 pm until 12midnight. Fumes remained through Sunday (5 days) and we kept windows open throughout that period, trying to stay away from home as often as possible. We hope there are no lasting effects!
  24. headaches
  25. Strong, sickening chemical odors while walking on 84th Street east to west towards Riverside
  26. our building management fid nothing to warn us or ventilate after the work
  27. We still have the odors in our house. They are still strong. We have our windows open.
  28. Given our building was directly affected by yesterday's work, it is not surprising that the smells were stronger. The smell was almost overwhelming yesterday and I suffered a headache and nausea all day. My children were also affected with headaches. The smell is still lingering today, although not nearly as strong. I am ventilating the house which was difficult yesterday as the smell outside was nearly as strong as inside. Ventilation once the work had completed assisted with removing the strong odors but it cannot be good for us to be breathing these odors all day. I note that the gentlemen going into the sewer line to complete the work were wearing Hazmat suits. Whilst I realize the smell would be much more concentrated in the sewer line, this is surely an indication of its dangers. I also noticed that someone had called the fire brigade to come and investigate the fumes because they were so strong.
  29. We didn’t smell anything last week either. When we did smell it on the block it was when we were close to manhole covers.
  30. We have a small child and were forced to evacuate. Doors are hurt as strong today even after sealing of drains and ventilating
  31. Unbelievably bad. Coughing/itching/eyes burning. Toxic and carcinogenic. We had to abandon our apartment and the odor is still strong. We have a modern double trap for our sewer line yet it persists.
  32. Still smell it though much less
  33. Much better! Truck was located elsewhere and not outside 320. Something sure was different second time around.
  34. Any smells we had seemed to be coming in from the air on the street. It was gone on Friday.
  35. Smells are still pretty bad in the basement and elevator of our building today, but faint on the 4th floor where we live. I do think that last week was worse.
  36. I awoke this morning with dried out and sore nasal passages and throat. STOP this!
  37. The odors were moderate. Not as bad as for the first section of the work on the previous week.
  38. At 118 RSD, strong chem odor was in the lobby and cellar but not in the apartment
  39. I’m on the 10th floor and could smell them in my elevator lobby
  40. We found the odor problem to be much improved over the last time; it seems to be pretty much gone today. Part of it may have been the fact that, given a heads-up, we were able to close most of the drains.
  41. I noticed the odor in our building's basement.
  42. I submitted a report through 311!
  43. The odors were still extremely strong this morning when I left for work at 8:00 am.
  44. extremely strong odor throughout entire townhouse
  45. The odors were obvious last night when work was done on the Riverside half of the block. It might have been because the trucks were closer to our building (333) as were open sewer lines. Our top floor resident complained about highly offensive odors and the 4th floor resident said dishes left in the dishwasher had to be rewashed because of the odor. On the ground floor, in my apartment I taped/sealed windows; put towels under windows and doors; taped drains in showers, tubs and sinks and came home to a noticeable odor around 8PM. Once the trucks left, I opened windows for cross ventilation to air out the apartment. No lingering odor remains. Note: The prior week's work was not noticeable to me until I went outside around 4PM and then it was extremely pungent. That is why I sealed all windows for yesterday's work. As noted, the smell in the 2nd week got into my street level apartment and was aired out. Since I was out for the entire day yesterday, I cannot attest to conditions until 8PM.
  46. My throat was burning a little. My dog, who has a heart condition, was coughing. Had to put a towel under my door.
  47. I made an extensive effort to minimize the odors in our apt this week by closing off drains, not opening windows etc The week before (when our half of the street was being treated) the odors were intense and lingered well into the beginning of this week.
  48. I closed basement door to keep fumes from coming up stairwell and closed drains, but still had burning in eyes and nose over night.
  49. we all had sore throats, felt dopey and stupid and had headaches. The smell kept coming and going and the house is freezing from open windows and fans.
  50. Odors they were irritating to eyes and throat were most prevalent in our building’s lobby and elevator shaft. Living on the first floor off the lobby was not pleasant yesterday due to the fumes.
  51. Smell is NOT IN THE STREET where cool winds are constantly blowing but harsh acrid smells greet you when you enter the lobby. Doorman told me it is much worse in the basement. My eyes are sensitive to it. I am sorry they used this harsh chemical. I notified 311.
  52. Odor is unbelievably bad. It's hard to believe the city could let this happen. This can't be good!
  53. This week was much less smelly then last week. I think it may be because it was not in front of my building.
  54. When the water finally came on - 40 minutes after it was supposed to at 8 PM - it smelled when I ran it. It smelled like chemicals. I was afraid to use it because of the smell so I waited until the morning when more water had been through the pipes (and had hopefully washed away the poison) to bathe. I'm extremely uncomfortable with the process the city used to address this and I do not have faith that there are not now more chemicals and toxins in the water. The water in this building is regularly brown and city. Now I also have to worry that it has chemicals in it.
  55. Like others noted, it smelled pretty bad on Thursday, but had dissipated pretty well by Friday. My building smelled quite bad a couple of days earlier, which I later heard was when they did 83rd Street - is that right? I was told by a neighbor who said they had to move to a hotel last week. (They have a baby, too.) They're in a brownstone.
  56. 54. As of today 3/19/18 the odor is not as strong but still lingers in the building and has caused all my clothing to smell of the chemical odor.

"No odor" responses were largely from the 6 apartment buildings with high floors.

       
2017 New York, Nyack nr MEDIA REPORT: Residents called 911 and complained of dizziness due to strong odor that caused by sewer work near the neighborhood. Police, fire department, and ambulances personnel responded in two separate instances to reports of strong smelling burning plastic and airplane glue odor. The city sewer official suspected it was caused by a nearby CIPP activity. One resident complained of dizziness and was administered oxygen.
2017 California, Dublin nr MEDIA REPORT: 50-year-old of 8,000 feet concrete pipe was being rehabilitated using CIPP. The project manager declared that the smell residents detect is plastic that’s curing. She said the smell isn’t hazardous, but advised residents close-up their windows and doors if they smell it. The project manager called it an odor inconvenience. A couple residents complained to the utility when the liner was being installed near their homes.
2017 Indiana, Anderson nr MEDIA REPORT: 3,500 feet of existing sewer line was rehabilitated. During CIPP installation, a bypass sewer line was installed, but local water pollution control department got few calls about the odor problems in houses at basement drains. Contractor said “they have not been too many problems, and the problems we encountered are normal for a project this size”.
2017 Pennsylvania, South Heights nr MEDIA REPORT: Several residents were evacuated from 12 homes due to their contamination by an epoxy odor from a nearby CIPP project. Residents reported a gas smell and were told to evacuate. Firefighters used large fans to remove air out of homes then residents were permitted to return. The general manager of municipal authority said “P-traps should have prevented odor, but many homes did not have P-traps affected by the smell”. Utility said they have never seen so many homes affected in the same area.
2017 California, San Diego nr MEDIA REPORT: 36 elementary school students fell sick due to nearby CIPP construction site that was in process of pouring resin. Emissions entered first-grade school wing and playground area. Students said there was “fume smelling, and everyone started to cover their mouth and nose, smelling cause headache, Ambulance brought one student to the hospital. HAZMAT team was called. City spokesperson declared at a press conference that “the material being used was not hazardous. There’s no reason to believe it’s hazardous. We have crews doing this for years.” The following day the department of public works suspended planned CIPP activities.
2017 Missouri, Lee's Summit nr MEDIA REPORT: Residents expressed concerns to the CIPP contactor and utility. A liquid solution, Eco-Sorb, was offered to pour down floor drains to minimize odors. The residents were advised to open windows and doors to ventilate their homes and MSDS sheets/information about the products used during the CIPP process was provided by the contractor. Utility staff went door to door to follow up with residents to address any outstanding concerns. “We responded twice to the area for calls to 911 complaining of an odor,” said Lee’s Summit Fire Department Assistant Chief. “Each time there were no hazards found. When anyone called the business number to complain about the odor or get information on who to contact, if they had any kind of physical complaint, they were asked if they needed an ambulance. Everyone declined.” An informational video on the CIPP process was posted on the City’s YouTube site (www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxRxi87pqFE), but was removed after Purdue University researchers notified the city some of the statements the engineer stated in the video were false.
2017 Virginia, Arlington nr FOIA/ MEDIA REPORT: On August 3, 2017, at 11:17 AM Fire Department responded to request of a business to investigate an odor. Fire Department learned the building inhabitants reported a chemical odor originating from floor drain in the bathroom. The responders reported they used a 6 gas meter and found no readings. Emergency responders recommended the building inhabitant pour water down the drain and believe the odor was caused by water and sewer pipe lining in the area.
On August 3, 2017, at 6:38 PM Fire Department responded to request of homeowners who complained of an odor of gas. When onsite, Fire Department explained that building occupants reported a chemical odor in the house. Fire Department checked residence with 5 gas meter and got no response, but odor was present. Some emergency responders stated a 6 gas meter was used. Emergency responders believe odor originated from contractor sewer lining activity in the neighborhood earlier in the day. Responding units vented the house.
2017 North Carolina, Charlotte nr MEDIA REPORT: Office building evacuated due to odor and persons self-reporting adverse health effects. Private industrial hygiene testing company conducted PID sampling. Building was evacuated for 2 nights. Emissions were suspected to have entered through a nearby air handler outside the building due to nearby CIPP sanitary sewer installation.
2017 Toronto, ON (Canada) 0 ppm “During installation of lining from MH-5 to MH-6 we received 2 complaints of odor from properties located to the west of the main entrance. Readings were taken inside the properties with the GasAlertMicro5 PID and recorded levels of 0 ppm.”
2017 California, Dublin nr MEDIA REPORT: “A couple of residents to called the utility and complained about the smell on Tuesday when the liner was being installed and cured.” The curing process is what causes the plastic smell which the project engineer says isn’t hazardous. But they are advising people to close up their doors and windows if they smell it. 
2017 New York, Whitesboro nr MEDIA REPORT: Some residents noticed a bad smell in their homes; Commissioner of Water Quality and Pollution Control advised those exposed to “go outside and contact the project manager on site because the smell indicates a bigger problem within the residence.” Commissioner stated that “it means that there’s an air gap in your house from the sewer; you’re supposed to have traps inside the house — it’s a water barrier between you and the sewer,” he said. “If somebody’s getting odor inside their house, that means either they don’t have a trap or there’s a dry trap somewhere allowing that odor to get in.” The lining process was cheaper than digging up the streets, which cost about $150 per foot compared to the $30 to 40 per foot to line the pipes. Commissioner explained the process as: “We’re basically making a fiberglass pipe inside the existing one. The way you do that is you have what’s almost like a felt sock and it’s impregnated with resin. You snake that down through the pipe and you blow either steam or hot water into the pipe and it brings the sock out to full capacity on the inside of the pipe and then the hot water or the steam cures that resin. So now what you’ve made is basically a pipe within a pipe.”
2017 Missouri, Columbia nr FOIA: April 25, 2017 a person called 911 to report hearing a loud pop, smelled an odor, and saw a person down in a ditch. Upon arrival Fire Department smelled a strong glue type odor. Observer explained to Fire Department “white smoke” was coming out of the ditch and the person was no longer visible. Fire Department personnel then went into the ditch and found white smoke was coming out of a sewer manhole from a pipe placed there. The Fire Department’s combustible gas monitor showed normal readings. Fire Department met up with the sewer contractor about 100 yards from the open sewer manhole, and the contractor stated they were flushing and lining the sewer pipes, and there was no problem. Fire Department then contacted the observer who was the person who called and told them there was no problem.
2017 California, South Pasadena nr FOIA / MEDIA REPORT: The fire department was called to an adult school after 9 people reported feeling ill including “nausea.” After the fire department arrived, 2 persons continued feeling ill and were transported to the hospital. The fire department reported that the incident was “related to an odor from CIPP fiberglass sewer pipe lining that was being performed in the City system. Hazardous Materials experts responded and determined the smell was non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and was an odor only.” 
       
2016 Missouri, Bolivar nr FOIA: January 26, 2016 fire department responded to a multifamily dwelling due to an odor report. Personnel investigated, and reported that the odor was from a nearby pipe sealing process. Personnel explained to the building inhabitants the chemical’s TWEL, and “residents was ventilation”. 
2016 Missouri, Bolivar nr FOIA: January 6, 2016 fire department responded to a dwelling due to an odor report. Units physically surveyed location and did not find physical hazards on the property exterior. Resident told personnel the house started smelling like paint at 1100am. Fire department requested additional support and use of a 4-gas detection device. Fire department noted an obvious odor in the resident. Fire department reported that all interior readings were normal, O2 levels at 20.8. Bolivar Public Works was working 0.5 miles South of the incident location. Fire department confirmed with public works that the work on the sewer lines would be causing the smell, but there was no hazard involved. Having found the source and confirmed that there was no hazard, the fire department left. 
2016 Virginia, Falls Church nr FOIA/MEDIA REPORT: Restaurant reported an “unusual odor in bathroom” and fire department responded as a hazmat investigation. Fire department observed workers relining pipes nearby and confirmed that the odor in the building was from the pipe relining work.
2016 Kentucky, Alexandria 2.0 [units nr] FOIA: Utility has a specific category for calls associated with “odors from CIPP.” On August 10, 2016 received a complaint of bad odor/chemical smell from a single family home. Utility representative picked up a MultiRae on the way to the site. Talked with homeowner and person from the CIPP company was already there. Utility representative used the MultiRae in the house where the odors were reportedly coming up. Representative reported the highest reading was “2.0” and home owners had not added water in the trap yet. Homeowners had opened all windows before utility representative arrived to test. Utility representative said homeowner’s were ok.
2016 Kentucky, Burlington nr FOIA: Utility has a specific category for calls associated with “odors from CIPP.” On August 5, 2016 received complaint about odor in house and utility was working up the street. Caller said he talked to someone who told him to open windows and caller says he can’t because he has a new baby. Utility representative investigated and reported the odors were from slipline, customer is remodeling the basement and had an open drain, and was advised not to cover it. Utility representative could detect faint odor and advised person to call utility back if odor does not go away or get worse. 
2016 Minnesota, St. Louis Park nr FOIA: 10:13 AM resident called 911 about a smell in the area giving the resident a headache. Fire Department saw contractor working on sewer lines. Fire Department was told contractor was re-lining sewer and there could be a harmless odor of styrene in people’s homes if they had dry floor drains. Contractors told responded residents were warned how to avoid odors in the home. Firefighter wanted to use a 4-gas meter/HCN monitor in the resident’s home and person refused entry. Person also stated that “it had gotten much better since opening windows and declined medical care.” As fire department was leaving site, another nearby resident approached them and claimed of strong odor in residence. Firefighter checked residence and received reading of 16 ppm HCN on their monitor. Evacuated residence and ventilated it. Firefighter called back to the station for additional support. When support arrived, contractor was told to discontinue operations until problem was understood. A VOIC level fo 126 (not units) was obtained at one residence that was tested with the additional responders. Residence was then ventilated. After rechecking residence where HCN monitor found 16 ppm, responders concluded they may have had a false positive. After two affected residences were ventilated, department personnel left. 
2016 Wisconsin, Darlington nr FOIA: EMS, police, and fire departments responded to a residence where person complained of chemical odor in their home. Odor determined to have originated from sewer lining project two blocks away. Landlord was notified their plumbing traps had dried out or had faulty plumbing. Police department then issued a notice of “noxious odors” on their Facebook account. The Department stated “there is a company working on sewer lines in the city is using a resin-type substance to make some repairs. If a home is not properly plumbed or a sewer trap is dried out, it is possible the fumes will come into the home. If this happens, put water down all your drains to make sure all your sewer traps are full. The fumes cannot come into the home if the traps are full of water like they're supposed to be. Ventilate your home by opening windows and using fans.”
2016 Indiana, West Lafayette nr Fumes entered a University campus office building through floor drains; chemicals were generated by a nearby CIPP sewer pipe repair activity; building inhabitants complained to the University safety department and onsite CIPP contractor about odors; doors were opened to ventilate building before the safety department representative arrived to investigate; fire department was not called; University safety department conducted spot PID testing after building ventilation; contractor stated there was no health risk just an unpleasant odor.
2016 Illinois, Good Hope nr Report that ‘steam’ filled the post office four different times; no fire department called; lateral not plugged allowed chemical plume to enter building; "It blew the water out of the toilet," Town Manager said. "It blew the wax seal out because steam was coming out between the floor and the toilet, and steam was coming out of the toilet….and it was coming out of the roof vent. I came up here six times." I got phone calls from the post office out of Bloomington, out of La Harpe, out of Galesburg and like three times up here...The first time, it ruined their computer, and they had to replace their computer inside. It was so wet, there was water dripping from the ceiling. Everything in there was just covered, and the floors were just sopping wet.”
2016 Wisconsin, Madison nr Hazardous materials team responded; odor-permeating basements of local businesses and exiting storm drains; The reporter stated, “A white haze that was unidentifiable on monitoring equipment was seen coming out of a storm sewer drain, so firefighters called in the hazardous incident team. Chemical identified was styrene.” "An employee of the CIPP company said they used styrene and the chemical had been disposed of in a drain about four blocks away," per the fire department.
2016 New York, Bethlehem nr Reported stated that there was a foul smell up and down the street where cured in place pipe installation for sewer repair was occurring; Insituform hired by town for sewer work; Residents were asked to cover toilets.
2016 New York, Cheektowaga nr Resident complained “it automatically takes your breath away. You're like what is that smell?” The Cheektowaga resident said it's coming from a silvery liquid that settled in her basement sump pump. It stems from sewer work performed by a company called Insituform last week. The letter also said homeowners might experience an odor. Resident said “I woke up in the middle of the night sick to my stomach from it.” Resident said she contacted Insituform and they did come and check out the problem. But, she said it hasn't been resolved. Resident worries what kind of effect the smell might have on her health. “… What is causing that smell?” The Town of Cheektowaga said they've received a handful of complaints. It said the gas is coming through a faulty trap or an illegal sump pump. The town recommends running water through the trap to fix it. But, it is on the homeowner to fix a faulty trap or an illegal sump pump.
2016 Cornwall, England (UK) nr Resident claimed, “Suffered from burning eyes, abdominal pain, aching joints and memory loss at their home”; Water utility stated, "No evidence their work caused the family's ill health. As a gesture of goodwill, they were paying for the family to stay in a B&B.” In a letter, specialist doctor at hospital said, “resident presented with symptoms of styrene poisoning and was advised not to enter the house until it had been cleared of the chemical.” Water utility stated, “styrene is widely used across the country to line water mains and sewers and there is no regulatory requirement to wear respiratory masks whilst working with the substance.”
2016 Virginia, Alexandria nr FOIA: Fire department responded to a resident complaint; collected dräeger tube air sample; RK&K, Inc. contractor took them to the downstream manhole. Later, someone with a baby came by and said they called the fire department; fire department told her to open her windows and pour water down her basement drain. RK&K, Inc. contractor told person to additionally put a wet rag over the opening. RK&K, Inc. contractor thinks some people are more sensitive to styrene than others or their house somehow captures more odors due to their lateral location. Contractor recommends set up a fan “even if it is for show.” Per RK&K, Inc., “There was no visible steam or odor from the manhole although [fire department] took their reading about 4 inches from the bags' end which will/may result in a high reading. They did not return for further discussions.”
2016 Virginia, Alexandria 0 ppm FOIA: City spoke with resident who filed odor complaint April 14, 2016 to report styrene odor; RK&K, Inc. contractor visited home and used PID, which stated “0.0 ppm at all times when they were in the house. ”Homeowner called again on April 27, 2016, 13 days after the lining cool down, to report the styrene odor again.  RK&K went to the home again and this time there was a reading as they entered the front door.  RK&K, Inc. walked outside, went back in and the reading was 0.0 both at the door and at the basement trap; Homeowner called May 16, 2016 (today) to request another reading; City explained to him that the work was accomplished over 3 weeks ago and that if there was an odor it was not caused by the sewer lining. 
2016 New York, North Tonawanda nr Reporter stated “For about a month, noses have been picking up a distinctive smell near the site of the former Durez Corp. plastics and chemical plant that was torn down in 1997.” Sewer pipes were being repaired with cured in place pipe and the odor was suspected to be caused by the construction activity per the City Engineer. The reporter stated that community air monitoring was performed throughout the project.
       
2015 Indiana, Terre Haute nr Downtown businesses complained of odor during sewer lining by the city. A downtown restaurant owner first reported the smell to the city Wednesday. Descriptions of the odor ranged from turpentine to burning rubber. By the time city crews arrived to investigate, the smell had dissipated. The smell returns each time contractors move on to the next section of pipe, the city stated. The city discovered several buildings didn’t have traps in their basements to prevent odors from coming inside. The city advised anyone noticing the odor again to call the city engineering department.
2015 Massachusetts, Weymouth nr FOIA: Numerous concerns reported to a local elected official in 24 hours about MWRA sewer work being conducted. Release of gas reported and residents took and sent video of the construction activity to the elected official. Official asked city “What exactly is being spewed right now? Residents are claiming its styrene and a strong odor is being reported.” City also received call from residents and told resident the odor is styrene, is harmless for people and pets, and likely entered building due to faulty resident plumbing. Elected official asked why workers are not wearing protective gear and the city responded that the worker doesn’t come into contact with resin. Elected official also stated noise and odor at night caused by this activity was awakening residents. City said “contractor cannot stop in the middle of a relining segment pipe you have to go to completion". City officials communicated with one another that a Facebook video shows “steam exhaust” used to cure the liner not styrene gas. The liner does use a styrene based resin, and at times odors can be noticeable, however at very low concentrations. The workers follow their company’s health and safety plan to work with the materials.” 
2015 Quebec (Canada) nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Fumes stayed in building for 1 month; installers claimed styrene trapped underground and drifted into house; installers installed blowers; after the 2nd month (1 month of ventilation) odor went away.
2015 Mississippi, Picayune nr Calls to utility during weeks and typically with older homes; Utility suspects most residents that notice a smell may be living in a home with inadequate vent or trap which is allowing the odor to enter the home from the wastewater lines; CIPP contractor recommends residents add water to sewer traps and if smell intrudes home they should open windows for a short time; CIPP contractor assures the smell is not harmful and cites a 2001 study to determine the levels of styrene concentration during the installation and a worst case scenario; Contractor states during testing the concentration detected with a working trap was 0.0002 ppm while faulty vents had 0.1 and 0.2 ppm; Claimed person standing over a manhole would experience 3.2 ppm styrene; Contractor reported that if odor does enter house it could remain for up to two days.
2015 Nebraska, Lincoln nr Several homes evacuated; fire department called and stated “The readings in one of the houses was significantly high, higher than expected levels or safe levels;" Fire department chief stated "When they inject steam into the sewer line and in that steam is a chemical called styrene.” City health specialist stated, “Our assumption is it pushed a bunch of this odor through the sewer line, on down stream of where they were working." Fire department opened windows in the affected homes and set fans up to help aerate them, and residents were allowed back inside later that day.
2015 Ottawa (Canada) nr Residents and businesses complained about chemical exposures: "The smell was so intense that I had to let my secretary go home because she was ready to vomit.” The city paid for one family to be put up into a home; the city stopped CIPP work to investigate; city recommended work only be conducted in summer when buildings can be better aired out.
2015 Ottawa (Canada) nr Residents state that odors come through drains and circulate in the building through air vents and started about a month ago, “Using incense to cover the smell”; Ottaway Public Health monitored air; City Hall recommends that residents open their windows until the smell goes away; the business owner interviewed however did not have windows that can be opened.
2015 Florida, St. Petersburg nr Resident filed complaint to city that “For two days having some strong chemical (epoxy or glue-like odor) coming from drains periodically. The smell has resulted in irritation to the back of our nasal passages in just a short period of time breathing it.”
2015 Wisconsin, Antigo nr Illness symptoms reported by child; pregnant woman concerned about the exposure; firefighters responded to homes; firefighters said, “According to the MSDS sheet it was not safe to just be breathing those inhalants.” Resident explained, “The basement was incredibly full of fumes, and whatever they're shooting into the pipes was shooting up out of our drain pipe into our basement so forcefully it was actually whistling.”
2015 Virginia, Alexandria nr FOIA: City tells residents, “Higher ambient temperatures have a tendency to exacerbate odors associated with the relining.” Homeowner association representative stated, “Different homes very near to one another have been affected to widely varying degrees. Just speaking in my home, the basement and main floors were worse than the second floor.  Some houses were not affected. In addition, when all windows were opened, fumes dissipated fairly well and resident thought the threat was over. When resident closed windows, and turned on air conditioning, and left to go to the store, fumes became bad again. The fumes were also bad last night even though the crew finished work about 5:30pm the day before, albeit not nearly as bad as while they were working.” City declared, “People and Pets are safe because the contractors are not working with enough styrene to be dangerous. Styrene is only dangerous in large quantities.”
2015 Maryland, Kensington nr FOIA: Resident called utility and left message about complaint and claimed he and several neighbors who were ill due to the smell exposure that caused a nose bleed; utility CIPP contractor was lining a 30 inch diameter sewer pipe in the area with steam curing and utility suspects that would cause the styrene odor; utility spoke with one resident who claimed that there was a shift in the wind causing the odor to linger about his house and his neighbors causing temporary illness; utility staff explained they are working to figure out what chemicals were used; follow up by utility indicates that, “Customers contacted WSSC regarding the resin odor which is typical when lining sewers.” CIPP contractor installation failed (400 linear feet of the 500 linear foot liner) and contractor has been cutting/removing the failed liner.
2015 New York, Rensselaer nr Chemical entered homes from sewer CIPP lining; one resident taken to hospital; city paid for hotel rooms for 5 homes impacted. Resident claimed, “Styrene permeated the clothing in their drawers, closets, and couches.”
2015 New Jersey, Botany Village nr Resident reported strong and fragrant sewer odor pervaded the neighborhood; yearlong project.
       
2014 Colorado, Aurora nr “….lining was completed adjacent to a school. Due to a combination of events, the entire school was evacuated because the exterior dampers were opened up and the styrene smell infiltrated the school.”
2014 Missouri, St. Louis nr Residents report odors in homes; Described them as “toxic, permanent-marker-type smell.” Sewer utility [Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District] spokesperson stated: The heating/curing process is known to release smells that, while gross and annoying, don't pose a health risk, says LeComb. "Odors do come off sometimes, and we certainly apologize for the inconvenience. This is a very large sewer, so it'll have more of an odor impact than we usually see," says LeComb. However, Lacomb adds, it is possible for the smell to emanate from inside a home, likely through dried-out sink traps or basement drains. If you start to smell something funky indoors, he suggests pouring two or three cups of water in the sink or down the drain to seal those smells away.”
2014 Kansas, Prairie Village nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident reported the smell of superglue in house, headaches and nostrils burning; utility contacted and told resident vapors nontoxic; windows and doors opened for ventilation, but odor remained; county did not investigate and told resident chemicals were nontoxic.
2014 Manchester, England (UK) nr Steam cured CIPP was installed; residents complained about odor, and health effects such as headaches and nausea. “A number of households were relocated to stay with relatives or in hotels. Subsequent investigations indicated that a small breach occurred in the liner during the early curing process. This allowed chemicals to escape and enter nearby properties, most likely through connections to the culvert.”
2014 Maryland, Baltimore nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident evacuated house after detecting odor caused by CIPP sewer pipe repair activity nearby and experienced chemical exposure symptoms; sought medical attention; fire department responded conducted air testing but discrepancy between resident observed results [400 ppm styrene on draeger tube] and fire department filed report [nothing found]; moved out of house for 1 month; odors got stronger when it rained.
2014 Illinois nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident claimed fumes from CIPP sanitary sewer installation backed-up into private residences and residents reported chemical exposure symptoms.
2014 Maryland, Kengington nr FOIA: Resident called utility and filed a complaint, chemical odor from nearby sewer work happening behind his house; utility staff recommended borrowing language provided to them by the CIPP when responding to the resident. The contractor language stated, but not limited to, “Don’t be alarmed. The CIPP industry is a worldwide 100 billion dollar industry that installs more than one million feet a year and thousands of people are involved with no diverse effects.”
2014 Tennessee, Nashville nr Complaints from residents about chemicals emitted during CIPP activities; “We're having a hard time breathing, getting dizzy," Zach Shedd said. "Pretty much have to leave the house. It's got a very think, pungent smell, like burning plastic. When you inhale or breathe it, it literally coats the back of your throat." Utility stated “There is no research or studies showing that this is hazardous, styrene is actually in things we use every day. It's in certain foods, like strawberries or coffee. It's in automobile exhaust."
       
2013 Massachusetts, North Attleboro “zero ppms” FOIA: Chemical fumes from a sewer relining project prompted the temporary evacuation of a dentist’s office across from the Community School. Liner company setup fan to “draw out odor in basement area from a manhole”. Fire department officials said no one was injured as a result of the strong odors, which came from a work site located nearby. Incident report stated that odor in school was reported and it was being vented. Fire department reviewed a MSDS sheet. A draeger test was conducted and “zero ppms” were found. Fire department requested that city and liner company setup fan at affected buildings.
2013 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident took 4 month old baby to a medical center after exposure to fumes inside a house generated during nearby CIPP sanitary sewer repair.
       
2012 New York, Fayeteville nr Odors permeated into nearby residences; residents complained and evacuated their homes; city engineer stated odor “Is not toxic, not dangerous”; contractor stated, “Odor from it is not harmful. There is no health risk. The contractor’s personnel are trained in handling the liner properly, and once it hardens, there is no residual left. There is no exposure other than an odor blown off the material. It’s no different than smelling turpentine or gas.”
2012 Brisbane (Australia) nr PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Resident reported that odors were detected and exposure lasted 5 days in home; person hospitalized; health department investigated and demanded home be decontaminated; resident reported his and his neighbor’s pets died.
2012 Ontario (Canada) nr Odors detected kilometers from worksite and within nearby private residences; exhaust fans used for manholes.
2012 Ontario (Canada) nr CIPP wastewater discharged to sanitary sewer; odors reported near worksites.
2012 Oregon, Willemette River nr Contractor discharged steam cured CIPP waste to Willamette River; “Styrene levels were so high that the responder had to wear a respirator to collect samples.”  
       
2011 Illinois, Effingham nr FOIA: November 17, 2011 (7:57 AM) the Effingham Fire Department responded to a request for assistance where strong odor in a building was reported. Upon arrival the Fire Department discovered a sewer company was relining sewer pipes one block away. Upon entry of the building a strong smell of chemical was detected and concluded due to the sewer lining activity. O2 levels, NO, CO, and no explosives were found [likely used a 4-gas meter].
Same day (8:14 AM) the Fire Department responded to another request for assistance to a residence. Residents complained they were getting a headache and had a small baby. Upon arrival fire department found no CO, O2 levels were okay, but a strong odor was present. [likely used a 4-gas meter]. Fire department associated this odor with nearby pipe relining and claimed they had other calls [plural] on bad odor in the area. Resident was going to go to their mother’s home until the odor cleared out.
City of Effingham Fire Department public announcement that “some citizens may have experienced odors in their residence and businesses” and the majority were caused by sewer lining work. The contractor installed fans to “correct the odors and manholes were opened to let the fumes escape”.
2011 Wisconsin, Milwaukee nr Alderman said CIPP was used recently and that some residents complained about an odor coming into their homes. This odor was not the regular sewer gas but a result of the CIPP process. A reinforced felt liner is pulled through the damaged sewer pipe after it has been cleaned. A resin, styrene, is sprayed on the felt and activated with heat (steam or hot water). The off gassing occurs during this activation process and it disperses quickly.”
2011 Minnesota, St. Paul nr Resident reported on city website that “….there's a strong smell of adhesive that started last evening in my basement and now pervades my home and office.” Person reportedly spoke with City Utilities Division who explained that “crews are putting new fiberglass-type liners inside the sanitary sewers.” Person indicated that City Utilities Division advised this person to “pour a bucket of water down your basement floors drain(s) and any other drains (sink, shower, etc.) that aren't used often. That should refill your pipe trap with water and seal off the odors.”
2011 Massachusetts, Worcester 60-70 ppm Fumes caused daycare center evacuation; headaches reported; emergency responders called to site; Fire chief reported, “For the styrene to be dangerous, it needs to be 10 times that amount.”
2011 Minnesota nr Odor caused by resin spill prompted building evacuations; residual remained for five months.
2011 Michigan, Port Huron nr Daycare owner sent children home early and remained closed; claimed odors made staff and children sick and dizzy; residents reported strong odors in homes; firefighters responded and said no toxic or flammable fumes in homes; officials told residents to pour water in their traps to keep odors out of homes.
2011 Michigan, Port Huron nr Firefighters responded to reports of a strong odor; resident claimed it smelled like turpentine, started puking, removed her three dogs, and opened house windows.
2011 Michigan, Southfield nr Five students and one staff member at high school transported to hospital after becoming nauseated; 20-25 classrooms affected; fire fighters responded with local HAZMAT unit; odor reportedly entered building day before and students were moved by teachers to different part of building; Oakland County Water resources (water utility) manager stated, “At levels present in the resin, neither the styrene nor the other chemicals were toxic.” Civil Engineer at water utility stated, "It's not uncommon to have people complain about the odor, and we have had complaints (about the odor) from the public before, but we've never had people go to the hospital until this incident. Up to this point, it's really just been about odor. We have had complaints about eye irritation and gastroenterological problems, but nothing worse than that. It's never really been a public health concern…..the process only produces one to three parts per million when you're exposed.”
2011 Massachusetts, Saugus nr Firefighters ordered evacuation of elementary school because of strong odor; dizzy and light-headed symptoms reported; the following day, after the building had been evacuated, the state health agency conducted air testing using a PID; odor detected outside above a manhole cover but PID did not respond; PID did not respond for VOCs in the in-building locations.
2011 Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh nr Two schools evacuated; elementary and high school students evacuated for fear of gas leak, but odors turned out to be caused by nearby CIPP operation; theory was “The wind was blowing in such a way that the smell drifted to the schools, where windows were open.” Utility stated, “Did not believe chemicals used in the process would cause any danger to people in the schools, especially since schools were not in close proximity to the work and the contractors doing the work aren't required to wear masks or other breathing apparatus.”
2011 Colorado, Clear Creek nr “Source Type: Culvert Lining. Cause Information: Styrene was released to the water of Clear Creek after it had been used on 2/4/11 by CDOT [Colorado Department of Transportation] as part of the process of lining a culvert near the water intake on Clear Creek for the Loveland Valley Ski Area. The ski area noted the smell on 2/7/11 and did a test that showed the presence of styrene.” It had contaminated their drinking water. “…February 7, 2011 at 1125 a.m. the Clear Creek County Environmental Health Dept received information of a possible contamination of the waterway of Clear Creek at the Loveland Ski Area. An elevated, but unknown amount of styrene has been detected, and is suspected to be at the CDOT culverts …” Investigation discovered unknown amount of uncured resin was discharged to creek and styrene as well as other compounds known to be present in resin or produced during CIPP manufacture were detected in downstream waterways. Community affected by drinking water contamination was provided alternate drinking water supply followed by actions to remediate the affected area and wide area environmental sampling.
2011 Birmingham, England (UK) 15-200 ppm Odor complaints reported by residents; residences evacuated homes at contractor’s recommendation; one resident claimed, “My 3 children (6yrs, 4yrs, 17 mths) have all been sick during the night and we have all suffered headaches, dizziness, tight chests and nausea. My baby has swollen & inflamed tonsils & throat which the GP feels is due to the irritation caused by styrene.” 3 days after, reported styrene above 20 ppm in one home still; 8 days after incident 100 ppm styrene measured in one home and resident reporting chemical exposure symptoms; responders theorized there was a leak in the lining used for styrene CIPP sewer pipe repair; building ventilation conducted; health department did not conducted testing, relied on contractor results to make safety decisions; contractor did not disclose styrene present in homes above health limits until days after health agency involved.
       
2010 Ohio, Williams Co. Village nr Residents complained, “Smelling a glue-like odor inside their houses for the last two weeks, and have suffered from severe headaches, nausea, and dizziness.” Some claimed, “They only began to link their symptoms to the fumes this week after the odor intensified.” Family began experiencing upset stomachs, diarrhea, severe headaches, dizziness, and lethargy about 2.5 weeks ago. Residents moved out of house and afraid to return home; some went to emergency room to seek help, hospital told them they do not have facilities to test for the chemicals. Village manager evacuated 19 families from their homes and put them up in a hotel for 2 nights at a total cost of about $3,000. Town manager stated, “There's flu going around. I can't tell you why they were sick.” Town manager said, “Smell came from a chemical called styrene which was used as a sealant for the sewer pipeline… odor got into people's homes through floor drains.” Reporter stated other substances - acetone, a polyester resin and chemical products named "Perkadox 16" and "Trigonox 42S" - also were used during the project.
2010 Montana, Helena nr Fire department evacuated affected building because of complaints of strong odors, nausea, and headaches.
2010 Montana, Helena nr Workers at local businesses left the office after smelling the CIPP causing odor. Businesses opened doors to ventilate their buildings; city hired contractor to test air, but was unaware of complaint by business interviewed by reporter; the prior week firefighters evacuated an area due to odors; businesses filed insurance claims due to lost business.
2010 Montana, Helena nr Businesses closed; residents reported chemical exposure symptoms to include headaches; part of the old sewer pipe being repaired was exposed in a building’s basement, making it easier for the chemicals to escape. Complaints about the smell of paint thinner or glue caused firefighters to evacuate the building 3 days ago; at that time a peak of 67 ppm in the building’s basement was detected; following day, it was 10.2 ppm on average, and 3 days later, the level was 2.5 ppm. City workers set fans to pump fresh air into the building, which made the problem worse by pushing gases into other areas.
2010 Ohio, Lorain County nr Residents claimed, “They became nauseated or dizzy last week from 8 days ago from an overpowering chemical smell coming from their toilets or floor drains.” CIPP contractor stated, “Styrene odor can be irritating to some people but that rarely does anyone become ill.” 5 days after odor, engineering contractor conducted testing per residents; resident claimed, “Went in the bathroom and the pressure had shot up water out of the toilet -- and the smell just about knocked you over…couldn't breathe right and got a headache from it….felt confused, groggy, like I was drunk or slurring my speech."
2010 Virginia, Arlington nr Nearby CIPP installation caused odor; residents called, fire department responded; city publicly claimed, “The resin is not harmful to pets or people.” City claims pouring water in sewer traps “prevents sewer odors from entering the home.”
2010 Washington, Bellevue nr CIPP storm water pipe cured by steam; plug failed and released waste to local waterway including styrene two different days; odors detected; city closed area to the public near spill to prevent exposures; odor remained for more than 14 days after the spill.
       
2009 Vermont, Barnet nr Transportation agency employees identified a potential safety problem with chemical air emissions at a worksite: “The 54” culvert located at MM 117.96 along I-91 was repaired in July of 2008. The largest issues documented during the installation were safety related, most particularly the strong styrene odors that were released during the curing process.”
2009 Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh nr Firefighters evacuated apartment buildings; initially suspected cyanide gas, but styrene was ultimately detected from nearby CIPP.
2009 Iowa, Des Moines nr Odor inside government building caused by CIPP nearby caused building inhabitants to evacuate twice; downtown workers and residents also noted the odor. Fire department stated, “Smell is harmless and will dissipate quickly.”
       
2008 Massachusetts, Cambridge nr Contractor released contaminated process water down sewer line which exited downstream manhole; fans were used to divert fumes away from a neighborhood; cease and desist order issued by utility to contractor.
       
2007 Georgia, Snellville nr Resident contacted health department about chemicals entering homes during a recent storm sewer rehabilitation project and reportedly caused neighbors to experience headaches. Health department contacted the contractor who installed in-place polymer liners. The process involved running a polyester resin tube inside existing storm pipe, then filled with 180 degree water. A styrene based thermoset resin and catalyst system was used to cure the resin in place when the 180 degree water was added. According to the contractor, during this process, all the styrene was gassed off. Upon complaint by the resident, the contactor discovered an illegal drain pipe coming from the home that was connected to the storm pipe. Resident ventilated the house during the day, which health department told him was the right thing to do. Four days after the incident, the resident stated that the smell had diminished, but was still present. The health department informed the resident that the NIOSH relative exposure limit was set at a TWA of 50 ppm. Without measuring the actual indoor air concentration, the health department reported that there was no way of knowing whether his family was exposed to styrene gas above the REL. The resident continued to ventilate the home and the health department informed the resident that this was all that could be done and that the styrene gas would eventually dissipate.
2007 Somerset, England (UK) nr Foul CIPP styrene odor permeated into residence through drain because of nearby installation; resident stated odor persisted for 12 days and rejected the offer of a masking spray. Utility (Wessex Water) stated, “The smell of styrene is not harmful and is generally short-lived.”
2007 New York, Brooklyn nr Foul CIPP styrene odor permeated into buildings through drain because of nearby installations; Department of Environmental Protection adds pine deodorizer at the site cover the smell; odors first detected in 2006.
2007 Massachusetts, Boston nr CIPP installation prompted chemicals to enter the basement of a nearby restaurant.
       
2004 Virginia, Alexandria 500 ppm HAZMAT team responded because of styrene vapor backup into nearby buildings; illness symptoms reported by residents and residents evacuated homes. Police officer stated he felt nauseated, light-headed, short of breath and his eyes were burning, like they were on fire. Went to urgent-care center and was diagnosed with an inhalation injury. Another resident who worked at the World Bank said, “The smell was so strong that he was afraid to return to his home with his 19-month-old son.”. He reported vomiting repeatedly the next day, and thought he had food poisoning. City officials said yesterday, “That the toxic fumes might have affected more residents than they initially disclosed.” Hose left behind by contractor was emitting 500 ppm of styrene; public works conducted tests in sewer and homes and declared styrene was “within acceptable levels”; city recommended residents fill “dry pipe traps with water to prevent fumes from entering through pipes. Workers also planned to ventilate manholes and flush sewer lines with water. Contractor stated, “On rare occasions, we've had people overreact, as we've had in this situation, and go to the hospital as a result of smelling the styrene . . . which can cause your eyes to burn and your nose to run, much like smelling ammonia.”
2004 Ottawa (Canada) 20 ppm, 115 ppm Venting determined to be helpful to prevent air backup into nearby residences/ buildings.
2004 Alexandria, Virginia 500 ppm HAZMAT team responded because of styrene vapor backup into nearby buildings; illness symptoms reported by residents and residents evacuated homes. Police officer stated he felt nauseated, light-headed, short of breath and his eyes were burning, like they were on fire. Went to urgent-care center and was diagnosed with an inhalation injury. Another resident who worked at the World Bank said, “The smell was so strong that he was afraid to return to his home with his 19-month-old son.”. He reported vomiting repeatedly the next day, and thought he had food poisoning. City officials said yesterday, “That the toxic fumes might have affected more residents than they initially disclosed.” Hose left behind by contractor was emitting 500 ppm of styrene; public works conducted tests in sewer and homes and declared styrene was “within acceptable levels”; city recommended residents fill “dry pipe traps with water to prevent fumes from entering through pipes. Workers also planned to ventilate manholes and flush sewer lines with water. Contractor stated, “On rare occasions, we've had people overreact, as we've had in this situation, and go to the hospital as a result of smelling the styrene . . . which can cause your eyes to burn and your nose to run, much like smelling ammonia.”
2004 Wisconsin, Milwaukee 0.01 - 0.32; 30 ppmv for total VOC An office building became contaminated; building evacuated for 2 days. Occupants complained about irritant symptoms and strong odor. US federal health agency investigated; styrene and other VOCs detected; 4 months required to reduce styrene levels to background; greatest styrene levels detected in basement; ASTDR declared the exposures a public health hazard due to styrene levels exceeding acceptable ATSDR chronic (long-term) exposure levels. Recommendations made to ventilate the building basement to reduce exposure and odor. A temporary exhaust system was installed in the building basement near the point of vapor entry.
       
2001 Florida, Tampa nr MEDIA REPORT: Odor from a city sewer project drifted through pipes and into a branch of St. Anthony's Hospital on Thursday morning, forcing employees and rehabilitation patients to evacuate the building for several hours, authorities said. The St. Petersburg Fire Rescue hazardous materials team arrived at the fourth floor of the St. Anthony's Hospital Resource Center at 9 a.m. after a foul smell was reported and a hospital employee had trouble breathing, said Lieutenant. About 40 people were evacuated from the building at 500 Dr. M.L. King (Ninth) St. N, which houses an adult day care for senior citizens and a patient rehabilitation center, as well as several hospital employees' offices. HAZMAT originally thought the odor came from a ventilation problem within the hospital. Firefighters thought chlorine fumes from a rehabilitation pool were pushed onto the fourth floor, but St. Petersburg Fire Rescue was not satisfied with that explanation. The employee who was having trouble breathing was treated at the hospital.
In another incident in April 2001, fumes from an CIPP job caused a several hour evacuation of about 40 people many of them older people from a branch of St. Anthony's Hospital. The resin, when activated by hot water that is pumped in, gives off a smell like a newly manufactured fiberglass boat, CIPP Contractor officials say. One woman in the hospital was treated for breathing problems. Odor from one CIPP job baffled the hazardous materials team in April, when 40 people were evacuated from St. Anthony's Hospital for four hours. The hazardous materials team originally believed the smell was caused by chlorine from a hospital rehabilitation pool. "Yeah, that was us," said the division manager of wastewater maintenance for St. Petersburg, who added that the hospital's P-trap should have caught the smell.”
       
1993 Texas, Austin nr MEDIA REPORT: Seven people were overcome by fumes when a ventilator at a stormwater line in stopped working and vapors escaped from a manhole. The injured, employees at the Austin Travis County Humane Society, were taken to Brackenridge Hospital after complaining of nausea and dizziness. Fire Department's hazardous material unit said the fumes contained an alcohol and benzene mixture. Industrial waste control supervisor for the city's water and wastewater utility department, said a private contractor hired by the city to coat the surface of stormwater lines near the intersection caused the accident. "What we think happened is they ran water down the line and the water reacted with those chemicals and caused the vapors," said spokeswoman for the city's water department. The CIPP contractor had workers underground at that site coating the pipes with resin when a ventilator nearby stopped working. The Humane Society workers were overcome by fumes when they removed the manhole to find the cause of an odor, fire officials said. Executive director at the Humane Society said 30 dogs in kennels near the manhole were moved to another site.