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News and Press


Fall 2017


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal received the Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering Research during the 2017 AIChE National Meeting.


Swapnil Deshmukh, Zheyu Jiang, Radhakrishna Tumbalamgooty, Taufik Ridha, and Parham Mobed presented their works during the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting.


Swapnil Deshmukh is recognized at the Chemical Engineering GSO Graduate Research Symposium for Best Poster in the Materials and Nanotechnology Category

Summer 2017


Swapnil Deshmukh and Ryan Ellis attend the Hands on Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE) educational conference and present their work on solution processed CIGSSe


Prof. Agrawal’s Sustainable Full Earth Concept Recognized in News Article from DNA


Dr. Rakesh Agrawal awarded NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) funding for graduate education in STEM fields


Scott McClary and Joseph Andler’s paper titled “Solution-Processed Copper Arsenic Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications” is published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry C


Joseph Andler presents a poster at the 2017 Crystal Growth and Assembly Gordon Research Conference entitled ” Luzonite Nanoparticle to Enrgaite Grain Polymorphic Transition for Thin-film Photovoltaics”


Taufik Ridha presents a poster at the 2017 EFRC-Hub-CMS PI Meeting entitled ” Systems-Level Molecular Mapping of Biomass-derived Molecules to Target Products”


Scott McClary is nominated for the Best Student Presentation Award at the 2017 PVSC


Scott McClary gives a talk at the 2017 Photovoltaic Specialist Conference in Washington DC titled, “Fabrication of Copper Arsenic Sulfide Thin Films from Nanoparticles for Application in Solar Cells”


Publications – Solar

S.A. McClary, J. Andler, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed copper arsenic sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, J. Mater. Chem. C. 5 (2017) 6913–6916. doi:10.1039/C7TC01920C.

C.K. Miskin, A. Dubois-Camacho, M.O. Reese, R. Agrawal, A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films, J. Mater. Chem. C. 4 (2016) 9167–9171. doi:10.1039/C6TC02986H.

R.B. Balow, C.K. Miskin, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and Characterization of Cu3(Sb1-xAsx)S4 Semiconducting Nanocrystal Alloys with Tunable Properties for Optoelectronic Device Applications, Chem. Mater. J. (2016). doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03850.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Generalized quantum efficiency analysis for non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSnSe4, J. Appl. Phys. 119 (2016). doi:10.1063/1.4939487.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Optoelectronic and material properties of nanocrystal-based CZTSe absorbers with Ag-alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 145 (2016) 342–348. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.039.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, C.K. Miskin, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, Controlled grain growth for high performance nanoparticle-based kesterite solar cells., Chem. Mater. 26 (2016) 7703–7714. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02733.

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, et al., Admittance Spectroscopy in CZTSSe: Metastability Behavior and Voltage Dependent Defect Study, in: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovolt. Spec. Conf., Portland, OR, (2016): pp. 2200–2203. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750025.

R.B. Balow, E.P. Tomlinson, M.M. Abu-Omar, B.W. Boudouris, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and characterization of earth abundant Cu3(As,Sb)Se4 nanocrystal alloys: towards scalable room-temperature thermoelectric devices, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 2198–2204. doi:10.1039/C5TA07546G.

R. Zhang, S. Cho, D.G. Lim, X. Hu, E.A. Stach, C.A. Handwerker, et al., Metal–metal chalcogenide molecular precursors to binary, ternary, and quaternary metal chalcogenide thin films for electronic devices, Chem. Commun. 846 (2016) 31–39. doi:10.1039/C5CC09915C.

X. Zhao, M. Lu, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed sulfur depleted Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells synthesized from a monoamine–dithiol solvent mixture, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 7390–7397. doi:10.1039/C6TA00533K.

X. Zhao, R. Zhang, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, The Potential of Amine-thiol based Solution Processing for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics, (2016) 542–544.

R.B. Balow, E.J. Sheets, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of copper arsenic sulfide nanocrystals from earth abundant elements for solar energy conversion, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2290–2293. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00701.

N.J. Carter, R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, C.J. Hages, J. Just, M. Klaus, et al., The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu–Zn–Sn–S nanoparticle thin films: a real-time study, J. Mater. Chem. C. 3 (2015) 7128–7134. doi:10.1039/C5TC01139F.

C.J. Hages, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of CZTSSe thin Films from Nanocrystals, in: Kentaro Ito (Ed.), Copp. Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Sol. Cells, (2015): pp. 239–270.

S.M. McLeod, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 1550–1556. doi:10.1002/pip.2588.

C.K. Miskin, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, C.S. Joglekar, E.A. Stach, et al., 9.0% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from selenized nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 654–659. doi:10.1002/pip.2472.

J.E. Moore, C. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, J.L. Gray, M.S. Lundstrom, Current-Voltage Analysis of Band Tail Effects in CZTSSe through Numerical Simulation, (2015).

E.J. Sheets, R.B. Balow, W.-C. Yang, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and purification of zinc tin phosphide nanowires, Nanoscale. 7 (2015) 19317–19323. doi:10.1039/C5NR05171A.

E.J. Sheets, W.-C. Yang, R.B. Balow, Y. Wang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, et al., An in situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters, J. Mater. Res. 30 (2015) 3710–3716. doi:10.1557/jmr.2015.333.

R. Zhang, S.M. Szczepaniak, N.J. Carter, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, A versatile solution route to efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin-film solar cells, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2114–2120. doi:10.1021/cm504654t.

N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, C.J. Hages, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from inks of heterogeneous Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 123 (2014) 189–196. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.016.

B.K. Graeser, C.J. Hages, W.-C. Yang, N.J. Carter, C.K. Miskin, E.A. Stach, et al., Synthesis of (CuInS2)0.5(ZnS)0.5 Allow Nanocrystals and Their Use for the Fabrication of Solar Cells via Selenization, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 4060–4063. doi:10.1021/cm501017z.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, T. Unold, Generalized current-voltage analysis and efficiency limitations in non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and Cu2Zn(SnyGe1-y)(SxSe1-x)4, J. Appl. Phys. 115 (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4882119.

X. Sun, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J.E. Moore, R. Agrawal, Characterization of Nanocrystal – Ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe Solar Cells using Voltage – dependent Admittance Spectroscopy, IEEE PVSC 40. 2 (2014) 1–3. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925415.

B.C. Walker, R. Agrawal, Contamination-free solutions of selenium in amines for nanoparticle synthesis, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 8331. doi:10.1039/c4cc02379j.

W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, E.A. Stach, Compositional inhomogeneity of multinary semiconductor nanoparticles: A case study of Cu2ZnSnS4, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 6955–6962. doi:10.1021/cm502930d.

N.J. Carter, C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics for CIGSSe and CZTSSe thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3062–3065. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745107.

S. Dongaonkar, S. Loser, E.J. Sheets, K. Zaunbrecher, R. Agrawal, T.J. Marks, et al., Universal statistics of parasitic shunt formation in solar cells, and its implications for cell to module efficiency gap, Energy Environ. Sci. 6 (2013) 782–787. doi:10.1039/c3ee24167j.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Device comparison of champion nanocrystal-ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe solar cells: Capacitance spectroscopy, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 1966–1971. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744856.

R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, S.S. Schmidt, O. Zander, A. Weber, H. Rodriguez-Alvarez, et al., Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 (2013) 18281–9. doi:10.1039/c3cp53373e.

C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, E. Stach, R. Agrawal, High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink solar cells through improved nanoparticle synthesis and selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 34–37. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744093.

J. Moore, C.J. Hages, N. Carter, R. Agrawal, M. Lundstrom, The physics of Vbi-related IV crossover in thin film solar cells: Applications to ink deposited CZTSSe, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3255–3259. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745146.

B.C. Walker, B.G. Negash, S.M. Szczepaniak, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, CZTSe devices fabricated from CZTSSe nanoparticles, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 2548–2551. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744994.

S. Dongaonkar, E. Sheets, R. Agrawal, M.A. Alam, Reverse stress metastability of shunt current in CIGS solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 868–872. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317740.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Enhancing the performance of CZTSSe solar cells with Ge alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 105 (2012) 132–136. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2012.05.039.

C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S. Dongaonkar, M.A. Alam, M.S. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Band Alignment Limitations and Light-Soaking Effects in CZTSSe and CZTGeSSe, in: Proc. 38th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf, Austin, TX, (2012): pp. 002658–002663.

M. Kar, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Chemical liquid deposition of CuInSe2 and CuIn(S,Se)2 films for solar cells, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2012) 5431–5437. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2012.04.012.

J. Moore, C. Hages, M. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Influence of Ge doping on defect distributions of Cu2Zn(SnxGe1-x) (SySe1-y) fabricated by nanocrystal ink deposition with selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 1475–1480. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317875.

B. Walker, R. Agrawal, Grain growth enhancement of selenide CIGSe nanoparticles to densified films using copper selenides, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 2654–2657. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6318141.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks: Effect of nanocrystal precursors, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2011) 523–528. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.08.007.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Earth Abundant Element Cu2Zn(Sn1−xGex)S4 Nanocrystals for Tunable Band Gap Solar Cells: 6.8% Efficient Device FabricationChem. Mater. 23 (2011) 8–11. doi:10.1021/cm2002836.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, A generalized and robust method for efficient thin film photovoltaic devices from multinary sulfide nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2011) 003522–003526. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186708.

M. Kar, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Formation pathway of CuInSe2 nanocrystals for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 17239–17247. doi:10.1021/ja204230d.

S. Dongaonkar, J.D. Servaites, G.M. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R.M. Gelfand, et al., Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 108 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3518509.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Solar cells via selenization of CuInS2 nanocrystals: Effect of synthesis precursor, 35th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2010) 3417–3419. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2010.5614584.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, H.W. Hillhouse, et al., Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 17384–17386. doi:10.1021/ja108427b.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Sulfide Nanocrystal Inks for Dense Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 Absorber Films and Their Photovoltaic Performance, Nano Lett. 9 (2009) 3060–3065. doi:10.1021/nl901538w.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Selenization of copper indium gallium disulfide nanocrystal films for thin film solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2009) 002126–002129. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411426.

Q. Guo, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink and its use for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 11672–11673. doi:10.1021/ja904981r.

Q. Guo, S.J. Kim, M. Kar, W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, E.A. Stach, et al., Development of CulnSe2 nanocrystal and nanoring inks for low-cost solar cells, Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 2982–2987. doi:10.1021/nl802042g.