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Fall 2021


Energy System Group Members Zewei Chen, Yiru Li, Wasiu Peter Oladipupo, Edwin Rodriguez, Gary Sawyer, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Alternative ordering of process hierarchy for more efficient and cost-effective valorization of shale resources” was published in Cell Reports Physical Science.

Energy System Group Undergraduate Researcher Arsh Bhatia received OUR scholarship for 2021-2022 academic year. Congratulations Arsh!


Summer 2021


Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Zewei Chen, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Energy-efficient membrane cascades for industrial separations” was published in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering.

Separations Research Group Members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “A Simple Criterion for Feasibility of Heat Integration between Distillation Streams Based on Relative Volatilities” was published in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Optimal design of membrane cascades for gaseous and liquid mixtures via MINLP” was published in Journal of Membrane Science.

Separations Research Group member Tony Joseph Mathew successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Tony!

Separations Research Group Members Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Methods to Assess Numerous Distillation Schemes for Binary Mixtures” was published in Chemical Engineering Research and Design.


Spring 2021


Tony Joseph Mathew and Zewei Chen both gave oral presentations at the 2021 AIChE Spring Meeting

Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Dattatray Deshmukh received the Outstanding Research Award 2021 from the College of Engineering. Congratulations, Swapnil!

Separations Research Group Member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Systematic Analysis Reveals Thermal Separations Are Not Necessarily Most Energy Intensive” was published in Joule.


Fall 2020


Energy Systems Research Group member Zewei Chen received the Bill Murray Fellowship for 2020-21 academic year. Congratulations Zewei!


Separations Research Group members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Quickly Assess Distillation Columns” was published in Chemical Engineering Progress.


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh won the Second Place Award in the 2020 AIChE Graduate Student Award Competition in the Inorganic Chemistry Area. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Summer 2020


Tony Joseph Mathew received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Energy and Process Intensification & Biotechnology category, and won the Best Overall award, at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, Tony!


David Rokke received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Material Science category at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, David!


Solar Energy Research Group members David Rokke and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Annual AIChE conference are accepted for an oral presentation and two Graduate Student Award Oral Presentations respectively.


Separations Research Group member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Adrian!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Separations Research Group Member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty’s manuscript “Misconceptions about Efficiency and Maturity of Distillation” was published in AIChE Journal.


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty is a winner of the 2020 AIChE Separations Division Graduate Student Research Award in the Distillation and Absorption area. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh is a winner of the best student paper award at the 47th IEEE PVSC. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Zewei Chen, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Classification and Comparison of Dividing Walls for Distillation Columns” was published in Processes.


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is interviewed on the Purdue University College of Engineering’s podcast, “Sounds Like the Future” on Episode 08: Advancing Sustainability Across Disciplines. Prof. Agrawal discusses his research and interests centered around sustainability


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh, Kyle Weideman, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Analyzing and Tuning the Chalcogen–Amine–Thiol Complexes for Tailoring of Chalcogenide Syntheses” was published in Inorganic Chemistry


Spring 2020


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis, Jonathan Turnley, David Rokke, Jacob Fields, Essam Alruqobah, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Hybrid Ligand Exchange of Cu(In,Ga)S2 Nanopartcles for Carbon Impurity Removal in Solution Processed Photovoltaics” was published in Chemistry of Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Essam AlRuqobah’s and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells” was published in ACS Applied Energy Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Joseph Andler successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Joe!


Solar Energy Research Group members, Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to IEEE’s 2020 PVSC conference were both selected for (now virtual) oral presentations


Solar Energy Research Group member, David Rokke, is accepted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Hands on Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE) 2020 program, a week long on-site educational program with field experts at NREL


Group member Tony Mathew received the 2020 Estus H. and Vashti L. Magoon Award for Excellence in Teaching by the College of Engineering for his teaching assistantship of CHE660: Chemical Reaction Engineering during the Spring 2019 semester


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and alumni Xianyi Hu are co-authors of a newly published book, “Sustainable Photovoltaics,” which is an overview of various research projects that were a part of the SERIIUS funding network


Group members Ryan Ellis, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Zewei Chen all receive $1000 travel grants from the Davidson School of Chemical Engineering for conference travel


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Spring MRS conference are accepted for oral presentations


Fall 2019


Solar Energy Research Group member Ryan Ellis wins first place in the Electronics and Photonic Materials Graduate Student Awards Session at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting for his oral presentation. Congratulations, Ryan!


Prof. Agrawal is an invited panelist for the Meet the Innovators presentation and panel discussion at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Ryan Ellis, Kyle Weideman, Zewei Chen, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Yiru Li, and Peter Oladipupo all give oral presentations at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh,* Ryan Ellis,* David Rokke, Dwi Sutandar and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish a paper titled, “Versatile Colloidal Synthesis of Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles from Elemental Precursors using Amine-Thiol Chemistry” in Chemistry of Materials


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is awarded the Phillip C. Wankat Graduate Teaching Award in Chemical Engineering recognizing his achievements as an instructor in graduate-level courses. Congratulations, Prof. Agrawal!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal writes a “Behind the Paper” blog post for Nature Sustainability describing the motivation behind the recently published paper


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a second blog post on Medium discussing the concept of Aglectric Farming


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a blog post on Medium featuring the NRT team and their research along with the new Nature Sustainability publication


Group alumni Caleb Miskin and current group members Yiru Li, Ryan Ellis, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish, “Sustainable co-production of food and solar power to relax land-use constraints” in Nature Sustainability


Publications – Solar

2021

S. D. Deshmukh, K. G. Weideman, C. K. Miskin, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal. Solution Phase Growth and Ion Exchange in Microassemblies of Lead Chalcogenide Nanoparticles. ACS Omega, 6 (2021) 21350-21358. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.1c01589.

2020

S. D. Deshmukh, L. F. Easterling, J. M. Manheim, N. J. LiBretto, K. G. Weideman, J. T. Miller, H. I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal, Analyzing and Tuning the Chalcogen-Amine-Thiol Complexes for Tailoring of Chalcogenide Synthesis, Inorg. Chem. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00597

R. G. Ellis, J. W. Turnley, D. J. Rokke, J. P. Fields, E. H. Alruqobah, S. D. Deshmukh, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal, Hybrid Ligand Exchange of Cu(In,Ga)2 Nanoparticles for Carbon Impurity Removal in Solution-Processed Photovoltaics, Chem. Mater. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c00966

E. H. Alruqobah, R. Agrawal, Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acsaem.0c00422

Ginley, D.; Ager, J.; Agrawal, R.; Alam, M. A.; Arora, B. M.; Avasthi, S.; Basak, D.; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, P.; Bora, B.; Braunecker, W. A.; Buonassisi, T.; Dhage, S.; Dhere, N.; Garner, S.; Hu, X.; Jhunjhunwala, A.; Kabra, D.; Kavaipatti, B.; Kazmerski, L.; Kottantharayil, A.; Kumar, R.; Lo, C.; Mani, M.; Nair, P. R.; Narsamma, L.; Olson, D. C.; Pal, A. J.; Raghavan, S.; Ramamurthy, P.; Sarada, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sastry, O. S.; Sridhar, H.; Tamizmani, G.; Urban, J.; van Hest, M.; Vasi, J.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. Sustainable Photovoltaics; Springer, Cham, 2020; pp 25–85. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-33184-9_2

S. A. McClary, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of semiconducting sinnerite (Cu6As4S9) thin films, MRS Communications. 1-6. (2020) doi:10.1557/mrc.2020.1

2019

X. Hu, S. Pritchett-Montavon, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal. Reaction pathways and optoelectronic characterization of single-phase Ag2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. Journal of Materials Research, 34 (22), 3810-3818. doi: 10.1557/jmr.2019.328

S. D. Deshmukh,* R. G. Ellis,* D. S. Sutandar, D. J. Rokke, R. Agrawal, Versatile Colloidal Syntheses of Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles from Elemental Precursors Using Amine-Thiol Chemistry, Chem. Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03401

C. K. Miskin,* Y. Li,* A. Perna, R. G. Ellis, E. K. Grubbs, P. Bermel, R. Agrawal, Sustainable co-production of food and solar power to relax land-use constraints, Nat. Sustain. (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0388-x

T. K. Todorov, H. W. Hillhouse, S. Aazou, Z. Sekkat, O. Vigil-Galán, S. D. Deshmukh, R. Agrawal, S. Bourdais, M. Valdes, P. Arnou, D. B. Mitzi, P. J. Dale, Solution-based synthesis of kesterite thin film semiconductors, J. Phys. Energy (2019). doi: 10.1088/2515-7655/ab3a81

X. Zhao,* S. D. Deshmukh,* D. J. Rokke, G. Zhang, Z. Wu, J. T. Miller, R. Agrawal, Investigating Chemistry of Metal Dissolution in Amine–Thiol Mixtures and Exploiting It toward Benign Ink Formulation for Metal Chalcogenide Thin Films, Chem. Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b01566

S. McLeod, E. Alruqobah, R. Agrawal, Liquid assisted grain growth in solution processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2019.02.020

C. K. Miskin,* S. D. Deshmukh,* V. Vasiraju, K. Bock, G. Mittal, A. Dubois-Camacho, S. Vaddiraju, R. Agrawal, Lead Chalcogenide Nanoparticles and Their Size-Controlled Self-Assemblies for Thermoelectric and Photovoltaic Applications, ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acsanm.8b02125

X. Yin,* S. A. McClary,* Z. Song, D. Zhao, B. Graeser, C. Wang, N. Shrestha, X. Wang, C. Chen, C. Li, K. K. Subedi, R. J. Ellingson, W. Tang, R. Agrawal, Y. Yan, A Cu3PS4 nanoparticle hole selective layer for efficient inverted perovskite solar cells, J. Mater. Chem. A (2019). doi: 10.1039/C8TA12100A

2018

B. Graeser, R. Agrawal, Pure phase synthesis of Cu3PS4 and Cu6PS5Cl for semiconductor applications. RSC Adv. (2018) doi: 10.1039/C8RA06241B

S. A. McClary, R. B. Balow, R. Agrawal. Role of annealing atmosphere on the crystal structure and composition of tetrahedrite–tennantite alloy nanoparticles. J. Mat. Chem. C. (2018) doi: 10.1039/C8TC02762E

2017

P. Murria,* C.K. Miskin,* R. Boyne, L.T. Cain, R. Yerabolu, R. Zhang, E.C. Wegener, J.T. Miller, H.I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal, Speciation of CuCl and CuCl2 Thiol-Amine Solutions and Characterization of Resulting Films: Implications for Semiconductor Device Fabrication, Inorg. Chem. (2017)  doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01359

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V. Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111 (2017). doi:10.1063/1.4996283

K.W. Brew, S.M. McLeod, S.M. Garner, R. Agrawal, Improving efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle based solar cells on flexible glass substrates, Thin Solid Films. 642 (2017) 110–116. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2017.09.009

S.A. McClary, J. Andler, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed copper arsenic sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, J. Mater. Chem. C. 5 (2017) 6913-6916. doi: 10.1039/C7TC01920C

R.B. Balow, C.K. Miskin, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and Characterization of Cu3(Sb1-xAsx)S4 Semiconducting Nanocrystal Alloys with Tunable Properties for Optoelectronic Device Applications, Chem. Mater. J. (2017). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03850

2016

C.K. Miskin, A. Dubois-Camacho, M.O. Reese, R. Agrawal, A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films, J. Mater. Chem. C. 4 (2016) 9167-9171. doi:10.1039/C6TC02986H.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Generalized quantum efficiency analysis for non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSnSe4, J. Appl. Phys. 119 (2016). doi:10.1063/1.4939487.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Optoelectronic and material properties of nanocrystal-based CZTSe absorbers with Ag-alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 145 (2016) 342-348. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.039.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, C.K. Miskin, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, Controlled grain growth for high performance nanoparticle-based kesterite solar cells., Chem. Mater. 26 (2016) 7703-7714. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02733.

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, et al., Admittance Spectroscopy in CZTSSe: Metastability Behavior and Voltage Dependent Defect Study, in: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovolt. Spec. Conf., Portland, OR, (2016): pp. 2200-2203. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750025.

R.B. Balow, E.P. Tomlinson, M.M. Abu-Omar, B.W. Boudouris, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and characterization of earth abundant Cu3(As,Sb)Se4 nanocrystal alloys: towards scalable room-temperature thermoelectric devices, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 2198-2204. doi:10.1039/C5TA07546G.

R. Zhang, S. Cho, D.G. Lim, X. Hu, E.A. Stach, C.A. Handwerker, et al., Metal-metal chalcogenide molecular precursors to binary, ternary, and quaternary metal chalcogenide thin films for electronic devices, Chem. Commun. 846 (2016) 31-39. doi:10.1039/C5CC09915C.

X. Zhao, M. Lu, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed sulfur depleted Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells synthesized from a monoamine-dithiol solvent mixture, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 7390-7397. doi:10.1039/C6TA00533K.

2015

X. Zhao, R. Zhang, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, The Potential of Amine-thiol based Solution Processing for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics, (2016) 542-544.

R.B. Balow, E.J. Sheets, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of copper arsenic sulfide nanocrystals from earth abundant elements for solar energy conversion, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2290-2293. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00701.

N.J. Carter, R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, C.J. Hages, J. Just, M. Klaus, et al., The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle thin films: a real-time study, J. Mater. Chem. C. 3 (2015) 7128-7134. doi:10.1039/C5TC01139F.

C.J. Hages, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of CZTSSe thin Films from Nanocrystals, in: Kentaro Ito (Ed.), Copp. Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Sol. Cells, (2015): pp. 239-270.

S.M. McLeod, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 1550-1556. doi:10.1002/pip.2588.

C.K. Miskin, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, C.S. Joglekar, E.A. Stach, et al., 9.0% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from selenized nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 654-659. doi:10.1002/pip.2472.

J.E. Moore, C. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, J.L. Gray, M.S. Lundstrom, Current-Voltage Analysis of Band Tail Effects in CZTSSe through Numerical Simulation, (2015).

E.J. Sheets, R.B. Balow, W.-C. Yang, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and purification of zinc tin phosphide nanowires, Nanoscale. 7 (2015) 19317-19323. doi:10.1039/C5NR05171A.

E.J. Sheets, W.-C. Yang, R.B. Balow, Y. Wang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, et al., An in situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters, J. Mater. Res. 30 (2015) 3710-3716. doi:10.1557/jmr.2015.333.

R. Zhang, S.M. Szczepaniak, N.J. Carter, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, A versatile solution route to efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin-film solar cells, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2114-2120. doi:10.1021/cm504654t.

2014

N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, C.J. Hages, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from inks of heterogeneous Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 123 (2014) 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.016.

B.K. Graeser, C.J. Hages, W.-C. Yang, N.J. Carter, C.K. Miskin, E.A. Stach, et al., Synthesis of (CuInS2)0.5(ZnS)0.5 Alloy Nanocrystals and Their Use for the Fabrication of Solar Cells via Selenization, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 4060-4063. doi:10.1021/cm501017z.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, T. Unold, Generalized current-voltage analysis and efficiency limitations in non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and Cu2Zn(SnyGe1-y)(SxSe1-x)4, J. Appl. Phys. 115 (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4882119.

X. Sun, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J.E. Moore, R. Agrawal, Characterization of Nanocrystal – Ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe Solar Cells using Voltage – dependent Admittance Spectroscopy, IEEE PVSC 40. 2 (2014) 1-3. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925415.

B.C. Walker, R. Agrawal, Contamination-free solutions of selenium in amines for nanoparticle synthesis, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 8331. doi:10.1039/c4cc02379j.

W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, E.A. Stach, Compositional inhomogeneity of multinary semiconductor nanoparticles: A case study of Cu2ZnSnS4, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 6955-6962. doi:10.1021/cm502930d.

2013

N.J. Carter, C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics for CIGSSe and CZTSSe thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3062-3065. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745107.

S. Dongaonkar, S. Loser, E.J. Sheets, K. Zaunbrecher, R. Agrawal, T.J. Marks, et al., Universal statistics of parasitic shunt formation in solar cells, and its implications for cell to module efficiency gap, Energy Environ. Sci. 6 (2013) 782-787. doi:10.1039/c3ee24167j.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Device comparison of champion nanocrystal-ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe solar cells: Capacitance spectroscopy, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 1966-1971. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744856.

R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, S.S. Schmidt, O. Zander, A. Weber, H. Rodriguez-Alvarez, et al., Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 (2013) 18281-9. doi:10.1039/c3cp53373e.

C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, E. Stach, R. Agrawal, High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink solar cells through improved nanoparticle synthesis and selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 34-37. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744093.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, R. Agrawal and H.W. Hillhouse. Ink formulation and low‐temperature incorporation of sodium to yield 12% efficient Cu (In, Ga)(S, Se) 2 solar cells from sulfide nanocrystal inks. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 21-1 (2013) 64-71. doi:10.1002/pip.2200

J. Moore, C.J. Hages, N. Carter, R. Agrawal, M. Lundstrom, The physics of Vbi-related IV crossover in thin film solar cells: Applications to ink deposited CZTSSe, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3255-3259. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745146.

B.C. Walker, B.G. Negash, S.M. Szczepaniak, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, CZTSe devices fabricated from CZTSSe nanoparticles, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 2548-2551. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744994.

2012

S. Dongaonkar, E. Sheets, R. Agrawal, M.A. Alam, Reverse stress metastability of shunt current in CIGS solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 868-872. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317740.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Enhancing the performance of CZTSSe solar cells with Ge alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 105 (2012) 132-136. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2012.05.039.

C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S. Dongaonkar, M.A. Alam, M.S. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Band Alignment Limitations and Light-Soaking Effects in CZTSSe and CZTGeSSe, in: Proc. 38th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf, Austin, TX, (2012): pp. 002658-002663.

M. Kar, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Chemical liquid deposition of CuInSe2 and CuIn(S,Se)2 films for solar cells, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2012) 5431-5437. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2012.04.012.

J. Moore, C. Hages, M. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Influence of Ge doping on defect distributions of Cu2Zn(SnxGe1-x) (SySe1-y) fabricated by nanocrystal ink deposition with selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 1475-1480. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317875.

B. Walker, R. Agrawal, Grain growth enhancement of selenide CIGSe nanoparticles to densified films using copper selenides, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 2654-2657. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6318141.

2011

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks: Effect of nanocrystal precursors, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2011) 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.08.007.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Earth Abundant Element Cu2Zn(Sn1−xGex)S4 Nanocrystals for Tunable Band Gap Solar Cells: 6.8% Efficient Device FabricationChem. Mater. 23 (2011) 8-11. doi:10.1021/cm2002836.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, A generalized and robust method for efficient thin film photovoltaic devices from multinary sulfide nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2011) 003522-003526. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186708.

M. Kar, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Formation pathway of CuInSe2 nanocrystals for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 17239-17247. doi:10.1021/ja204230d.

2010

S. Dongaonkar, J.D. Servaites, G.M. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R.M. Gelfand, et al., Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 108 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3518509.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Solar cells via selenization of CuInS2 nanocrystals: Effect of synthesis precursor, 35th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2010) 3417-3419. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2010.5614584.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, H.W. Hillhouse, et al., Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 17384-17386. doi:10.1021/ja108427b.

2009

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Sulfide Nanocrystal Inks for Dense Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 Absorber Films and Their Photovoltaic Performance, Nano Lett. 9 (2009) 3060-3065. doi:10.1021/nl901538w.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Selenization of copper indium gallium disulfide nanocrystal films for thin film solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2009) 002126-002129. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411426.

Q. Guo, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink and its use for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 11672-11673. doi:10.1021/ja904981r.

2008

Q. Guo, S.J. Kim, M. Kar, W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, E.A. Stach, et al., Development of CulnSe2 nanocrystal and nanoring inks for low-cost solar cells, Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 2982-2987. doi:10.1021/nl802042g.