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Spring 2024


Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan Turnley and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s Feature Article “Solution processed metal chalcogenide semiconductors for inorganic thin film photovoltaics” was published in RSC Chemical Communications.

Solar Energy Research Group member Shriya Khandelwal was awarded the Undergraduate Research Award. Congratulations, Shriya.

Solar Energy Research Group member Jonathan Turnley was awarded College of Engineering Outstanding Research Award. Congratulations Jonathan!

In collaboration with Prof. Edgardo Saucedo’s group at UPC Spain, Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan W. Turnley, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Novel synthesis of semiconductor chalcohalide anti-perovskites by low-temperature molecular precursor ink deposition methodologies” was published in Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

Solar Energy Research Group members Daniel C. Hayes, Samantha A. Langdon, Robert M. Spilker, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Carbon Impurity Minimization of Solution-Processed, Thin-Film Photovoltaics via Ligand Engineering of CuInS2 Nanoparticles” was published in ACS Applied Energy Materials.

Fall 2023


In collaboration with Prof. Lydia Wong’s group at NTU Singapore, Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Swope, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Efficiency enhancement and doping type inversion in Cu2CdSnS4 solar cells by Ag substitution” was published in Journal of Materials Chemistry A.

Solar Energy Research Group members Shubhanshu Agarwal, Kyle Weideman, David Rokke, Kiruba Catherine Vincent, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Enhancing the optoelectronic properties of solution-processed AgInSe2 thin films for application in photovoltaics” was published in Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan Turnley, Swapnil Deshmukh, Ryan Ellis, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Molecular Precursor Approach to Sulfur-Free CuInSe2: Replacing Thiol Coordination in Soluble Metal Complexes” was published in ACS Omega.

Solar Energy Research Group member Jonathan Turnley was awarded 2nd place for his presentation at the AICHE Electronic and Photonic Materials: Graduate Student Awards session. Congratulations Jonathan!

Solar Energy Research Group members Apurva Pradhan, Scott McClary, Kyle Weideman, Shriya Khandelwal, Joseph Andler, David Rokke, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Tuning the optoelectronic properties of enargite (Cu3AsS4) solar cells by Ag alloying: A DFT-informed synthesis” was published in Applied Physics Letters.

Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan Turnley, Swapnil Deshmukh, Robert Spilker, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “A selenium-based “alkahest”: reactive dissolutions of metals and metal compounds with n-alkylammonium polyselenide solutions” was published in Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers.

Solar Energy Research Group members Shubhanshu Agarwal, Jonathan Turnley, Apurva Pradhan, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Moderate Temperature Sulfurization and Selenization of Highly Stable Metal Oxides: An Opportunity for Chalcogenide Perovskite” was published in Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

Spring 2023


Separations Research Group Members Tony Mathew, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Relaxing the constant molar overflow assumption in distillation optimization” was published in AIChE Journal.

Solar Energy Research Group member Isabel Panicker was awarded 1st place in the Purdue AICHE undergraduate poster competition. Congratulations, Isabel!

After graduation, Solar Energy Research Group undergraduate Isabel Panicker will be going to Georgia Tech to get a PhD in chemical engineering. Congrats, Isabel!

After graduation, Solar Energy Research Group undergraduate Kevin Ng will be joining Parker Hannifin in their Engineering Leadership Development Program. Congrats, Kevin!

Solar Energy Research Group undergraduate Lily Whitmoyer has accepted a summer internship position with Washington River Protection Solutions. Congrats, Lily!

Solar Energy Research Group members Apurva Pradhan and Kiruba Catherine Vincent presented at the 2023 MRS Spring Meeting and Exhibit in San Francisco, California.

Solar Energy Research Group member Jonathan Turnley presented at the ACS Spring 2023 meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Solar Energy Research Group member Jonathan Turnley presented at the 2023 Gordon Research Conference on Nanomaterials for Applications in Energy Technology in Ventura, California.

The Purdue OTC announced in their March update that Prof. Rakesh Agrawal, Zewei Chen, and Peter Oladipupo received a patent titled “Electrically Heated Dehydrogenation Process“.

Solar Energy Research Group members Apurva Pradhan, Shubhanshu Agarwal, Jonathan Turnley, Shriya Khandelwal, Ryan Swope, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Synthesis of BaZrS3 and BaHfS3 Chalcogenide Perovskite Films Using Single-Phase Molecular Precursors at Moderate Temperatures” was published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Solar Energy Research Group members Kiruba Catherine Vincent, Shubhanshu Agarwal, Jonathan Turnley, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Liquid Flux-Assisted Mechanism for Modest Temperature Synthesis of Large-Grain BaZrS3 and BaHfS3 Chalcogenide Perovskites” was published in Advanced Energy & Sustainability Research.

Fall 2022


In collaboration with ExxonMobil’s Research Group, Separations Research Group Members Tony Mathew, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Advances in distillation: Significant reductions in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for crude oil separation” was published in Joule.

Separations Research Group Members Zheyu Jiang, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Minimum reflux calculation for multicomponent distillation in multi-feed, multi-product columns: Mathematical model” was published in AIChE Journal.

Solar Energy Research Group member Jonathan Turnley presented at the 2022 MRS Fall Meeting and Exhibit in Boston, Massachusetts.

Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan Turnley, Apurva Pradhan, Daniel Hayes, and Shubhanshu Agarwal presented at the 2022 AIChE Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona.

Solar Energy Research Group members Jonathan Turnley, Kiruba Catherine Vincent, Apurva Pradhan, Isabel Panicker, Ryan Swope, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Solution Deposition for Chalcogenide Perovskites: A Low-Temperature Route to BaMS3 Materials (M = Ti, Zr, Hf)” was published in Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Separations Research Group Members Akash Sanjay Nogaja, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Identifying Heat-Integrated Energy-Efficient Multicomponent Distillation Configurations” was published in I&EC Research Journal.

Separations Research Group Members Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Rakesh Agrawal, and Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani’s manuscript “Advances in MINLP to Identify Energy-Efficient Distillation Configurations” was published in Operations Research Journal.

Summer 2022


Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Which separation scenarios are advantageous for membranes or distillations?” was published in AIChE Journal.

Solar Energy Research Group member Kevin Ng was awarded the Best Presentation Award at the Purdue Summer Undergraduate Research Symposium. Congratulations Kevin!

Separations Research Group member Tony Mathew won the 2022 Graduate Student Research Award of the Distillation and Absorption Area of AIChE Separations Division. Congratulations Tony!

Spring 2022


Solar Energy Research Group member Apurva Pradhan was awarded the 2022 ChE Excellence in Safety award. Congratulations Apurva!

Solar Energy Research Group member Isabel Panicker’s poster received 2nd place in the College of Engineering at Purdue’s 2022 Spring Undergraduate Research Conference. Congratulations Isabel!

Solar Energy Research Group member David Rokke successfully defended his thesis and has accepted a position at Applied Materials. Congratulations David!

Solar Energy Research Group members David Rokke, Essam Alruqobah, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s review article “Extrinsic Doping of Ink-Based Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2-Absorbers for Photovoltaic Applications” was published in Advanced Energy Materials.

Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh, Caleb Miskin, Apurva Pradhan, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Solution Processed Fabrication of Se-Te Alloy Thin Films for Application in PV Devices” was published in ACS Applied Energy Materials.

Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh, Kyle Weideman, Ryan Ellis, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Enabling fine-grain free 2-micron thick CISe/CIGSe film fabrication via a non-hydrazine based solution processing route” was published in Materials Advances.

Solar Energy Research Group members Joseph Andler, Xianyi Hu, Scott McClary, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Analysis of enargite thin films synthesized from carbon-containing and novel carbon-free processing methods” was published in Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing.

Fall 2021


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis, Swapnil Deshmukh, Jonathan Turnley, Dwi Sutandar, Jacob Fields, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Direct Synthesis of Sulfide-Capped Nanoparticles for Carbon-Free Solution-Processed Photovoltaics” was published in ACS Applied Nano Materials.

Energy System Group Members Zewei Chen, Yiru Li, Wasiu Peter Oladipupo, Edwin Rodriguez, Gary Sawyer, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Alternative ordering of process hierarchy for more efficient and cost-effective valorization of shale resources” was published in Cell Reports Physical Science.

Energy System Group Undergraduate Researcher Arsh Bhatia received OUR scholarship for 2021-2022 academic year. Congratulations Arsh!


Summer 2021


Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Zewei Chen, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Energy-efficient membrane cascades for industrial separations” was published in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering.

Separations Research Group Members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “A Simple Criterion for Feasibility of Heat Integration between Distillation Streams Based on Relative Volatilities” was published in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Optimal design of membrane cascades for gaseous and liquid mixtures via MINLP” was published in Journal of Membrane Science.

Separations Research Group member Tony Joseph Mathew successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Tony!

Separations Research Group Members Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Methods to Assess Numerous Distillation Schemes for Binary Mixtures” was published in Chemical Engineering Research and Design.


Spring 2021


Tony Joseph Mathew and Zewei Chen both gave oral presentations at the 2021 AIChE Spring Meeting

Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Dattatray Deshmukh received the Outstanding Research Award 2021 from the College of Engineering. Congratulations, Swapnil!

Separations Research Group Member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Systematic Analysis Reveals Thermal Separations Are Not Necessarily Most Energy Intensive” was published in Joule.


Fall 2020


Energy Systems Research Group member Zewei Chen received the Bill Murray Fellowship for 2020-21 academic year. Congratulations Zewei!


Separations Research Group members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Quickly Assess Distillation Columns” was published in Chemical Engineering Progress.


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh won the Second Place Award in the 2020 AIChE Graduate Student Award Competition in the Inorganic Chemistry Area. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Summer 2020


Tony Joseph Mathew received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Energy and Process Intensification & Biotechnology category, and won the Best Overall award, at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, Tony!


David Rokke received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Material Science category at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, David!


Solar Energy Research Group members David Rokke and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Annual AIChE conference are accepted for an oral presentation and two Graduate Student Award Oral Presentations respectively.



 

Publications – Solar

2024

J. W. Turnley, R. Agrawal. Solution processed metal chalcogenide semiconductors for inorganic thin film photovoltaics. Chem. Comm. (2024) doi: 10.1039/D4CC01057D.

I. C. Prades, J. W. Turnley, P. Benitez, C. Lopez, J. M. A. Lopez, D. P. Zarceno, J. Puigdollers, M. Placidi, C. Cazorla, R. Agrawal, E. Saucedo. Novel synthesis of semiconductor chalcohalide anti-perovskites by low-temperature molecular precursor ink deposition methodologies. J. Mater. Chem. C (2024) doi: 10.1039/D3TC04410F.

D. C. Hayes, S. A. Langdon, R. M. Spilker, R. Agrawal. Carbon Impurity Minimization of Solution-Processed, Thin-Film Photovoltaics via Ligand Engineering of CuInS2 Nanoparticles. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. (2024) doi: 10.1021/acsaem.3c01922.

2023

A. Ibrahim, S. Lie, J. M. R. Tan, R. Swope, A. G. Medaille, S. Hadke, E. Saucedo, R. Agrawal, L. H. Wong. Efficiency enhancement and doping type inversion in Cu2CdSnS4 solar cells by Ag substitution. J. Mater. Chem. A (2023) doi: 10.1039/D3TA04529C.

S. Agarwal, K. G. Weideman, D. J. Rokke, K. C. Vincent, D. Zemlyanov, R. Agrawal. Enhancing the optoelectronic properties of solution-processed AgInSe2 thin films for application in photovoltaics. J. Mater. Chem. C (2023) doi: 10.1039/D3TC03540A.

J. W. Turnley, S. D. Deshmukh, V. M. Boulos, R. G. Ellis, N. J. LiBretto, J. K. Liu, J. T. Miller, H. I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal. Molecular Precursor Approach to Sulfur-Free CuInSe2: Replacing Thiol Coordination in Soluble Metal Complexes. ACS Omega (2023) doi: 10.1021/acsomega.3c07515.

A. A. Pradhan,C. Yao, S. A. McClary, K. G. Weideman, D. D. Blach, S. Khandelwal, J. Andler, D. J. Rokke, L. Huang, C. Handwerker, Y. Yan, R. Agrawal. Tuning the optoelectronic properties of enargite (Cu3AsS4) solar cells by Ag alloying: A DFT-informed synthesis. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2023) doi: 10.1063/5.0170314.

S. Agarwal, J. W. Turnley, A. A. Pradhan, R. Agrawal. Moderate Temperature Sulfurization and Selenization of Highly Stable Metal Oxides: An Opportunity for Chalcogenide Perovskite. J. Mater. Chem. C. (2023) doi: 10.1039/D3TC02716C.

J. W. Turnley, S. D. Deshmukh, V. M. Boulos, R. Spilker, C. J. Breckner, K. Ng, J. K, Liu, J. T. Miller, H. I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal. A selenium-based “alkahest”: reactive dissolutions of metals and metal compounds with n-alkylammonium polyselenide solutions. Inorg. Chem. Front. (2023) doi: 10.1039/D3QI01632C.

A. A. Pradhan, M. C. Uible, S. Agarwal, J. W. Turnley, S. Khandelwal, J. M. Peterson, D. D. Blach, R. N. Swope, L. Huang, S. C. Bart, R. Agrawal. Synthesis of BaZrS3 and BaHfS3 Chalcogenide Perovskite Films Using Single-Phase Molecular Precursors at Moderate Temperatures. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (2023) doi: 10.1002/anie.202301049

K. C. Vincent, S. Agarwal, J. W. Turnley, R. Agrawal. Liquid Flux-Assisted Mechanism for Modest Temperature Synthesis of Large-Grain BaZrS3 and BaHfS3 Chalcogenide Perovskites. Adv. Energy Sustainability Res. (2023) doi: 10.1002/aesr.202300010

2022

J. W. Turnley, K. C. Vincent, A. A. Pradhan, I. Panicker, R. Swope, M. C. Uible, S. C. Bart, R. Agrawal. Solution Deposition for Chalcogenide Perovskites: A Low-Temperature Route to BaMS3 Materials (M = Ti, Zr, Hf). J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2022) doi: 10.1021/jacs.2c06985

S. Suresh, D. J. Rokke, A. A. Drew, E. Alruqobah, R. Agrawal, A. R. Uhl. Extrinsic Doping of Ink-Based Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2-Absorbers for Photovoltaic Applications. Adv. Energy Mater. (2022) doi: 10.1002/aenm.202103961

S. D. Deshmukh, C. K. Miskin, A. A. Pradhan, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal. Solution Processed Fabrication of Se-Te Alloy Thin Films for Application in PV Devices. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. (2022) 5, 3, 3275-3281. doi: 10.1021/acsaem.1c03896

S. D. Deshmukh, K. G. Weideman, R. G. Ellis, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal. Enabling fine-grain free 2-micron thick CISe/CIGSe film fabrication via a non-hydrazine based solution processing route. Mater. Adv. (2022) doi: 10.1039/D2MA00095D

J. Andler, X. Hu, S. A. McClary, R. Agrawal, C. A. Handwerker. Analysis of enargite thin films synthesized from carbon-containing and novel carbon-free processing methods. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. (2022) 143, 106512. doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2022.106512.

2021

R. G. Ellis, S. D. Deshmukh, J. W. Turnley, D. S. Sutandar, J. P. Fields, R. Agrawal. Direct Synthesis of Sulfide-Capped Nanoparticles for Carbon-Free Solution-Processed Photovoltaics. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (2021) 4, 11, 11466-11472. doi: 10.1021/acsanm.1c02561.

S. D. Deshmukh, K. G. Weideman, C. K. Miskin, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal. Solution Phase Growth and Ion Exchange in Microassemblies of Lead Chalcogenide Nanoparticles. ACS Omega, 6 (2021) 21350-21358. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.1c01589.

2020

S. D. Deshmukh, L. F. Easterling, J. M. Manheim, N. J. LiBretto, K. G. Weideman, J. T. Miller, H. I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal, Analyzing and Tuning the Chalcogen-Amine-Thiol Complexes for Tailoring of Chalcogenide Synthesis, Inorg. Chem. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00597

R. G. Ellis, J. W. Turnley, D. J. Rokke, J. P. Fields, E. H. Alruqobah, S. D. Deshmukh, K. Kisslinger, R. Agrawal, Hybrid Ligand Exchange of Cu(In,Ga)2 Nanoparticles for Carbon Impurity Removal in Solution-Processed Photovoltaics, Chem. Mater. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c00966

E. H. Alruqobah, R. Agrawal, Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. (2020). doi: 10.1021/acsaem.0c00422

Ginley, D.; Ager, J.; Agrawal, R.; Alam, M. A.; Arora, B. M.; Avasthi, S.; Basak, D.; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, P.; Bora, B.; Braunecker, W. A.; Buonassisi, T.; Dhage, S.; Dhere, N.; Garner, S.; Hu, X.; Jhunjhunwala, A.; Kabra, D.; Kavaipatti, B.; Kazmerski, L.; Kottantharayil, A.; Kumar, R.; Lo, C.; Mani, M.; Nair, P. R.; Narsamma, L.; Olson, D. C.; Pal, A. J.; Raghavan, S.; Ramamurthy, P.; Sarada, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sastry, O. S.; Sridhar, H.; Tamizmani, G.; Urban, J.; van Hest, M.; Vasi, J.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. Sustainable Photovoltaics; Springer, Cham, 2020; pp 25–85. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-33184-9_2

S. A. McClary, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of semiconducting sinnerite (Cu6As4S9) thin films, MRS Communications. 1-6. (2020) doi:10.1557/mrc.2020.1

2019

X. Hu, S. Pritchett-Montavon, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal. Reaction pathways and optoelectronic characterization of single-phase Ag2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. Journal of Materials Research, 34 (22), 3810-3818. doi: 10.1557/jmr.2019.328

S. D. Deshmukh,* R. G. Ellis,* D. S. Sutandar, D. J. Rokke, R. Agrawal, Versatile Colloidal Syntheses of Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles from Elemental Precursors Using Amine-Thiol Chemistry, Chem. Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03401

C. K. Miskin,* Y. Li,* A. Perna, R. G. Ellis, E. K. Grubbs, P. Bermel, R. Agrawal, Sustainable co-production of food and solar power to relax land-use constraints, Nat. Sustain. (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0388-x

T. K. Todorov, H. W. Hillhouse, S. Aazou, Z. Sekkat, O. Vigil-Galán, S. D. Deshmukh, R. Agrawal, S. Bourdais, M. Valdes, P. Arnou, D. B. Mitzi, P. J. Dale, Solution-based synthesis of kesterite thin film semiconductors, J. Phys. Energy (2019). doi: 10.1088/2515-7655/ab3a81

X. Zhao,* S. D. Deshmukh,* D. J. Rokke, G. Zhang, Z. Wu, J. T. Miller, R. Agrawal, Investigating Chemistry of Metal Dissolution in Amine–Thiol Mixtures and Exploiting It toward Benign Ink Formulation for Metal Chalcogenide Thin Films, Chem. Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b01566

S. McLeod, E. Alruqobah, R. Agrawal, Liquid assisted grain growth in solution processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2019.02.020

C. K. Miskin,* S. D. Deshmukh,* V. Vasiraju, K. Bock, G. Mittal, A. Dubois-Camacho, S. Vaddiraju, R. Agrawal, Lead Chalcogenide Nanoparticles and Their Size-Controlled Self-Assemblies for Thermoelectric and Photovoltaic Applications, ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (2019). doi: 10.1021/acsanm.8b02125

X. Yin,* S. A. McClary,* Z. Song, D. Zhao, B. Graeser, C. Wang, N. Shrestha, X. Wang, C. Chen, C. Li, K. K. Subedi, R. J. Ellingson, W. Tang, R. Agrawal, Y. Yan, A Cu3PS4 nanoparticle hole selective layer for efficient inverted perovskite solar cells, J. Mater. Chem. A (2019). doi: 10.1039/C8TA12100A

2018

B. Graeser, R. Agrawal, Pure phase synthesis of Cu3PS4 and Cu6PS5Cl for semiconductor applications. RSC Adv. (2018) doi: 10.1039/C8RA06241B

S. A. McClary, R. B. Balow, R. Agrawal. Role of annealing atmosphere on the crystal structure and composition of tetrahedrite–tennantite alloy nanoparticles. J. Mat. Chem. C. (2018) doi: 10.1039/C8TC02762E

2017

P. Murria,* C.K. Miskin,* R. Boyne, L.T. Cain, R. Yerabolu, R. Zhang, E.C. Wegener, J.T. Miller, H.I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal, Speciation of CuCl and CuCl2 Thiol-Amine Solutions and Characterization of Resulting Films: Implications for Semiconductor Device Fabrication, Inorg. Chem. (2017)  doi: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01359

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V. Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111 (2017). doi:10.1063/1.4996283

K.W. Brew, S.M. McLeod, S.M. Garner, R. Agrawal, Improving efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle based solar cells on flexible glass substrates, Thin Solid Films. 642 (2017) 110–116. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2017.09.009

S.A. McClary, J. Andler, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed copper arsenic sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, J. Mater. Chem. C. 5 (2017) 6913-6916. doi: 10.1039/C7TC01920C

R.B. Balow, C.K. Miskin, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and Characterization of Cu3(Sb1-xAsx)S4 Semiconducting Nanocrystal Alloys with Tunable Properties for Optoelectronic Device Applications, Chem. Mater. J. (2017). doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03850

2016

C.K. Miskin, A. Dubois-Camacho, M.O. Reese, R. Agrawal, A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films, J. Mater. Chem. C. 4 (2016) 9167-9171. doi:10.1039/C6TC02986H.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Generalized quantum efficiency analysis for non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSnSe4, J. Appl. Phys. 119 (2016). doi:10.1063/1.4939487.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Optoelectronic and material properties of nanocrystal-based CZTSe absorbers with Ag-alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 145 (2016) 342-348. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.039.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, C.K. Miskin, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, Controlled grain growth for high performance nanoparticle-based kesterite solar cells., Chem. Mater. 26 (2016) 7703-7714. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02733.

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, et al., Admittance Spectroscopy in CZTSSe: Metastability Behavior and Voltage Dependent Defect Study, in: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovolt. Spec. Conf., Portland, OR, (2016): pp. 2200-2203. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750025.

R.B. Balow, E.P. Tomlinson, M.M. Abu-Omar, B.W. Boudouris, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and characterization of earth abundant Cu3(As,Sb)Se4 nanocrystal alloys: towards scalable room-temperature thermoelectric devices, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 2198-2204. doi:10.1039/C5TA07546G.

R. Zhang, S. Cho, D.G. Lim, X. Hu, E.A. Stach, C.A. Handwerker, et al., Metal-metal chalcogenide molecular precursors to binary, ternary, and quaternary metal chalcogenide thin films for electronic devices, Chem. Commun. 846 (2016) 31-39. doi:10.1039/C5CC09915C.

X. Zhao, M. Lu, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed sulfur depleted Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells synthesized from a monoamine-dithiol solvent mixture, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 7390-7397. doi:10.1039/C6TA00533K.

2015

X. Zhao, R. Zhang, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, The Potential of Amine-thiol based Solution Processing for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics, (2016) 542-544.

R.B. Balow, E.J. Sheets, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of copper arsenic sulfide nanocrystals from earth abundant elements for solar energy conversion, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2290-2293. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00701.

N.J. Carter, R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, C.J. Hages, J. Just, M. Klaus, et al., The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle thin films: a real-time study, J. Mater. Chem. C. 3 (2015) 7128-7134. doi:10.1039/C5TC01139F.

C.J. Hages, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of CZTSSe thin Films from Nanocrystals, in: Kentaro Ito (Ed.), Copp. Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Sol. Cells, (2015): pp. 239-270.

S.M. McLeod, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 1550-1556. doi:10.1002/pip.2588.

C.K. Miskin, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, C.S. Joglekar, E.A. Stach, et al., 9.0% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from selenized nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 654-659. doi:10.1002/pip.2472.

J.E. Moore, C. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, J.L. Gray, M.S. Lundstrom, Current-Voltage Analysis of Band Tail Effects in CZTSSe through Numerical Simulation, (2015).

E.J. Sheets, R.B. Balow, W.-C. Yang, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and purification of zinc tin phosphide nanowires, Nanoscale. 7 (2015) 19317-19323. doi:10.1039/C5NR05171A.

E.J. Sheets, W.-C. Yang, R.B. Balow, Y. Wang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, et al., An in situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters, J. Mater. Res. 30 (2015) 3710-3716. doi:10.1557/jmr.2015.333.

R. Zhang, S.M. Szczepaniak, N.J. Carter, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, A versatile solution route to efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin-film solar cells, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2114-2120. doi:10.1021/cm504654t.

2014

N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, C.J. Hages, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from inks of heterogeneous Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 123 (2014) 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.016.

B.K. Graeser, C.J. Hages, W.-C. Yang, N.J. Carter, C.K. Miskin, E.A. Stach, et al., Synthesis of (CuInS2)0.5(ZnS)0.5 Alloy Nanocrystals and Their Use for the Fabrication of Solar Cells via Selenization, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 4060-4063. doi:10.1021/cm501017z.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, T. Unold, Generalized current-voltage analysis and efficiency limitations in non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and Cu2Zn(SnyGe1-y)(SxSe1-x)4, J. Appl. Phys. 115 (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4882119.

X. Sun, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J.E. Moore, R. Agrawal, Characterization of Nanocrystal – Ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe Solar Cells using Voltage – dependent Admittance Spectroscopy, IEEE PVSC 40. 2 (2014) 1-3. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925415.

B.C. Walker, R. Agrawal, Contamination-free solutions of selenium in amines for nanoparticle synthesis, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 8331. doi:10.1039/c4cc02379j.

W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, E.A. Stach, Compositional inhomogeneity of multinary semiconductor nanoparticles: A case study of Cu2ZnSnS4, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 6955-6962. doi:10.1021/cm502930d.

2013

N.J. Carter, C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics for CIGSSe and CZTSSe thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3062-3065. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745107.

S. Dongaonkar, S. Loser, E.J. Sheets, K. Zaunbrecher, R. Agrawal, T.J. Marks, et al., Universal statistics of parasitic shunt formation in solar cells, and its implications for cell to module efficiency gap, Energy Environ. Sci. 6 (2013) 782-787. doi:10.1039/c3ee24167j.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Device comparison of champion nanocrystal-ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe solar cells: Capacitance spectroscopy, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 1966-1971. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744856.

R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, S.S. Schmidt, O. Zander, A. Weber, H. Rodriguez-Alvarez, et al., Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 (2013) 18281-9. doi:10.1039/c3cp53373e.

C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, E. Stach, R. Agrawal, High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink solar cells through improved nanoparticle synthesis and selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 34-37. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744093.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, R. Agrawal and H.W. Hillhouse. Ink formulation and low‐temperature incorporation of sodium to yield 12% efficient Cu (In, Ga)(S, Se) 2 solar cells from sulfide nanocrystal inks. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 21-1 (2013) 64-71. doi:10.1002/pip.2200

J. Moore, C.J. Hages, N. Carter, R. Agrawal, M. Lundstrom, The physics of Vbi-related IV crossover in thin film solar cells: Applications to ink deposited CZTSSe, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3255-3259. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745146.

B.C. Walker, B.G. Negash, S.M. Szczepaniak, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, CZTSe devices fabricated from CZTSSe nanoparticles, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 2548-2551. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744994.

2012

S. Dongaonkar, E. Sheets, R. Agrawal, M.A. Alam, Reverse stress metastability of shunt current in CIGS solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 868-872. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317740.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Enhancing the performance of CZTSSe solar cells with Ge alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 105 (2012) 132-136. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2012.05.039.

C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S. Dongaonkar, M.A. Alam, M.S. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Band Alignment Limitations and Light-Soaking Effects in CZTSSe and CZTGeSSe, in: Proc. 38th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf, Austin, TX, (2012): pp. 002658-002663.

M. Kar, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Chemical liquid deposition of CuInSe2 and CuIn(S,Se)2 films for solar cells, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2012) 5431-5437. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2012.04.012.

J. Moore, C. Hages, M. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Influence of Ge doping on defect distributions of Cu2Zn(SnxGe1-x) (SySe1-y) fabricated by nanocrystal ink deposition with selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 1475-1480. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317875.

B. Walker, R. Agrawal, Grain growth enhancement of selenide CIGSe nanoparticles to densified films using copper selenides, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 2654-2657. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6318141.

2011

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks: Effect of nanocrystal precursors, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2011) 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.08.007.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Earth Abundant Element Cu2Zn(Sn1−xGex)S4 Nanocrystals for Tunable Band Gap Solar Cells: 6.8% Efficient Device FabricationChem. Mater. 23 (2011) 8-11. doi:10.1021/cm2002836.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, A generalized and robust method for efficient thin film photovoltaic devices from multinary sulfide nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2011) 003522-003526. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186708.

M. Kar, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Formation pathway of CuInSe2 nanocrystals for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 17239-17247. doi:10.1021/ja204230d.

2010

S. Dongaonkar, J.D. Servaites, G.M. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R.M. Gelfand, et al., Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 108 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3518509.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Solar cells via selenization of CuInS2 nanocrystals: Effect of synthesis precursor, 35th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2010) 3417-3419. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2010.5614584.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, H.W. Hillhouse, et al., Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 17384-17386. doi:10.1021/ja108427b.

2009

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Sulfide Nanocrystal Inks for Dense Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 Absorber Films and Their Photovoltaic Performance, Nano Lett. 9 (2009) 3060-3065. doi:10.1021/nl901538w.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Selenization of copper indium gallium disulfide nanocrystal films for thin film solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2009) 002126-002129. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411426.

Q. Guo, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink and its use for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 11672-11673. doi:10.1021/ja904981r.

2008

Q. Guo, S.J. Kim, M. Kar, W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, E.A. Stach, et al., Development of CulnSe2 nanocrystal and nanoring inks for low-cost solar cells, Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 2982-2987. doi:10.1021/nl802042g.