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Recent News

Spring 2018


Professor Rakesh Agrawal and the NSF NRT research project are featured in an article by Forbes


Congratulations to Solar Energy Research group alumni Charles (Chuck) Hages for accepting a faculty position at the University of Florida


Congratulations to Solar Energy Research group alumni Charles (Chuck) Hages for receiving the Citation Award from the Purdue University Davidson School of Chemical Engineering


Congratulation to Scott McClary for receiving the 2018-109 Bisland Dissertation Fellshowp


Congratulation to Yiru Li for passing her Preliminary Examination


The Solar Energy Research Group and Energy Systems Research Group welcome Kyle Weideman and Zewei Chen respectively


Fall 2017


Congratulations to Essam AlRuqobah, Swapnil Deshmukh, Ryan Ellis, and Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty for passing their Preliminary Examinations


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal received the Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering Research during the 2017 AIChE National Meeting.


Swapnil Deshmukh, Zheyu Jiang, Radhakrishna Tumbalamgooty, Taufik Ridha, and Parham Mobed presented their works during the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting


Publications – Solar

P. Murria, C.K. Miskin, R. Boyne, L.T. Cain, R. Yerabolu, R. Zhang, E.C. Wegener, J.T. Miller, H.I. Kenttämaa, R. Agrawal, Speciation of CuCl and CuCl2 Thiol-Amine Solutions and Characterization of Resulting Films: Implications for Semiconductor Device Fabrication, Inorg. Chem. (2017) acs.inorgchem.7b01359. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01359.

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V. Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111 (2017). doi:10.1063/1.4996283.

K.W. Brew, S.M. McLeod, S.M. Garner, R. Agrawal, Improving efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle based solar cells on flexible glass substrates, Thin Solid Films. 642 (2017) 110–116. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2017.09.009.

S.A. McClary, J. Andler, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed copper arsenic sulfide thin films for photovoltaic applications, J. Mater. Chem. C. 5 (2017) 6913-6916. doi:10.1039/C7TC01920C.

C.K. Miskin, A. Dubois-Camacho, M.O. Reese, R. Agrawal, A direct solution deposition approach to CdTe thin films, J. Mater. Chem. C. 4 (2016) 9167-9171. doi:10.1039/C6TC02986H.

R.B. Balow, C.K. Miskin, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and Characterization of Cu3(Sb1-xAsx)S4 Semiconducting Nanocrystal Alloys with Tunable Properties for Optoelectronic Device Applications, Chem. Mater. J. (2017). doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03850.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Generalized quantum efficiency analysis for non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSnSe4, J. Appl. Phys. 119 (2016). doi:10.1063/1.4939487.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Optoelectronic and material properties of nanocrystal-based CZTSe absorbers with Ag-alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 145 (2016) 342-348. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.039.

C.J. Hages, M.J. Koeper, C.K. Miskin, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, Controlled grain growth for high performance nanoparticle-based kesterite solar cells., Chem. Mater. 26 (2016) 7703-7714. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02733.

M.J. Koeper, C.J. Hages, J. V Li, D. Levi, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, et al., Admittance Spectroscopy in CZTSSe: Metastability Behavior and Voltage Dependent Defect Study, in: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovolt. Spec. Conf., Portland, OR, (2016): pp. 2200-2203. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750025.

R.B. Balow, E.P. Tomlinson, M.M. Abu-Omar, B.W. Boudouris, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and characterization of earth abundant Cu3(As,Sb)Se4 nanocrystal alloys: towards scalable room-temperature thermoelectric devices, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 2198-2204. doi:10.1039/C5TA07546G.

R. Zhang, S. Cho, D.G. Lim, X. Hu, E.A. Stach, C.A. Handwerker, et al., Metal-metal chalcogenide molecular precursors to binary, ternary, and quaternary metal chalcogenide thin films for electronic devices, Chem. Commun. 846 (2016) 31-39. doi:10.1039/C5CC09915C.

X. Zhao, M. Lu, M.J. Koeper, R. Agrawal, Solution-processed sulfur depleted Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells synthesized from a monoamine-dithiol solvent mixture, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4 (2016) 7390-7397. doi:10.1039/C6TA00533K.

X. Zhao, R. Zhang, C. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, W. Lafayette, The Potential of Amine-thiol based Solution Processing for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics, (2016) 542-544.

R.B. Balow, E.J. Sheets, M.M. Abu-Omar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of copper arsenic sulfide nanocrystals from earth abundant elements for solar energy conversion, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2290-2293. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00701.

N.J. Carter, R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, C.J. Hages, J. Just, M. Klaus, et al., The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle thin films: a real-time study, J. Mater. Chem. C. 3 (2015) 7128-7134. doi:10.1039/C5TC01139F.

C.J. Hages, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of CZTSSe thin Films from Nanocrystals, in: Kentaro Ito (Ed.), Copp. Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Sol. Cells, (2015): pp. 239-270.

S.M. McLeod, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, Synthesis and characterization of 15% efficient CIGSSe solar cells from nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 1550-1556. doi:10.1002/pip.2588.

C.K. Miskin, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, C.S. Joglekar, E.A. Stach, et al., 9.0% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from selenized nanoparticle inks, Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 23 (2015) 654-659. doi:10.1002/pip.2472.

J.E. Moore, C. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, J.L. Gray, M.S. Lundstrom, Current-Voltage Analysis of Band Tail Effects in CZTSSe through Numerical Simulation, (2015).

E.J. Sheets, R.B. Balow, W.-C. Yang, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Solution-based synthesis and purification of zinc tin phosphide nanowires, Nanoscale. 7 (2015) 19317-19323. doi:10.1039/C5NR05171A.

E.J. Sheets, W.-C. Yang, R.B. Balow, Y. Wang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, et al., An in situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters, J. Mater. Res. 30 (2015) 3710-3716. doi:10.1557/jmr.2015.333.

R. Zhang, S.M. Szczepaniak, N.J. Carter, C.A. Handwerker, R. Agrawal, A versatile solution route to efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin-film solar cells, Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 2114-2120. doi:10.1021/cm504654t.

N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, C.J. Hages, E.A. Stach, R. Agrawal, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells from inks of heterogeneous Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 123 (2014) 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.016.

B.K. Graeser, C.J. Hages, W.-C. Yang, N.J. Carter, C.K. Miskin, E.A. Stach, et al., Synthesis of (CuInS2)0.5(ZnS)0.5 Allow Nanocrystals and Their Use for the Fabrication of Solar Cells via Selenization, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 4060-4063. doi:10.1021/cm501017z.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, T. Unold, Generalized current-voltage analysis and efficiency limitations in non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and Cu2Zn(SnyGe1-y)(SxSe1-x)4, J. Appl. Phys. 115 (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4882119.

X. Sun, C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J.E. Moore, R. Agrawal, Characterization of Nanocrystal – Ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe Solar Cells using Voltage – dependent Admittance Spectroscopy, IEEE PVSC 40. 2 (2014) 1-3. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925415.

B.C. Walker, R. Agrawal, Contamination-free solutions of selenium in amines for nanoparticle synthesis, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 8331. doi:10.1039/c4cc02379j.

W.C. Yang, C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, R. Agrawal, E.A. Stach, Compositional inhomogeneity of multinary semiconductor nanoparticles: A case study of Cu2ZnSnS4, Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 6955-6962. doi:10.1021/cm502930d.

N.J. Carter, C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Analysis of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics for CIGSSe and CZTSSe thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3062-3065. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745107.

S. Dongaonkar, S. Loser, E.J. Sheets, K. Zaunbrecher, R. Agrawal, T.J. Marks, et al., Universal statistics of parasitic shunt formation in solar cells, and its implications for cell to module efficiency gap, Energy Environ. Sci. 6 (2013) 782-787. doi:10.1039/c3ee24167j.

C.J. Hages, N.J. Carter, J. Moore, S.M. McLeod, C.K. Miskin, C. Joglekar, et al., Device comparison of champion nanocrystal-ink based CZTSSe and CIGSSe solar cells: Capacitance spectroscopy, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 1966-1971. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744856.

R. Mainz, B.C. Walker, S.S. Schmidt, O. Zander, A. Weber, H. Rodriguez-Alvarez, et al., Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 (2013) 18281-9. doi:10.1039/c3cp53373e.

C.K. Miskin, N.J. Carter, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, E. Stach, R. Agrawal, High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink solar cells through improved nanoparticle synthesis and selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 34-37. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744093.

J. Moore, C.J. Hages, N. Carter, R. Agrawal, M. Lundstrom, The physics of Vbi-related IV crossover in thin film solar cells: Applications to ink deposited CZTSSe, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 3255-3259. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745146.

B.C. Walker, B.G. Negash, S.M. Szczepaniak, K.W. Brew, R. Agrawal, CZTSe devices fabricated from CZTSSe nanoparticles, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2013) 2548-2551. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744994.

S. Dongaonkar, E. Sheets, R. Agrawal, M.A. Alam, Reverse stress metastability of shunt current in CIGS solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 868-872. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317740.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, C.J. Hages, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Enhancing the performance of CZTSSe solar cells with Ge alloying, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 105 (2012) 132-136. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2012.05.039.

C.J. Hages, J.E. Moore, S. Dongaonkar, M.A. Alam, M.S. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Band Alignment Limitations and Light-Soaking Effects in CZTSSe and CZTGeSSe, in: Proc. 38th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf, Austin, TX, (2012): pp. 002658-002663.

M. Kar, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Chemical liquid deposition of CuInSe2 and CuIn(S,Se)2 films for solar cells, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2012) 5431-5437. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2012.04.012.

J. Moore, C. Hages, M. Lundstrom, R. Agrawal, Influence of Ge doping on defect distributions of Cu2Zn(SnxGe1-x) (SySe1-y) fabricated by nanocrystal ink deposition with selenization, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 1475-1480. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6317875.

B. Walker, R. Agrawal, Grain growth enhancement of selenide CIGSe nanoparticles to densified films using copper selenides, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2012) 2654-2657. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2012.6318141.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells from nanocrystal inks: Effect of nanocrystal precursors, Thin Solid Films. 520 (2011) 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.08.007.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Earth Abundant Element Cu2Zn(Sn1−xGex)S4 Nanocrystals for Tunable Band Gap Solar Cells: 6.8% Efficient Device FabricationChem. Mater. 23 (2011) 8-11. doi:10.1021/cm2002836.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, A generalized and robust method for efficient thin film photovoltaic devices from multinary sulfide nanocrystal inks, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2011) 003522-003526. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186708.

M. Kar, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Formation pathway of CuInSe2 nanocrystals for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 17239-17247. doi:10.1021/ja204230d.

S. Dongaonkar, J.D. Servaites, G.M. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R.M. Gelfand, et al., Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 108 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3518509.

G.M. Ford, Q. Guo, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Solar cells via selenization of CuInS2 nanocrystals: Effect of synthesis precursor, 35th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2010) 3417-3419. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2010.5614584.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, W.C. Yang, B.C. Walker, E.A. Stach, H.W. Hillhouse, et al., Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 17384-17386. doi:10.1021/ja108427b.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Sulfide Nanocrystal Inks for Dense Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 Absorber Films and Their Photovoltaic Performance, Nano Lett. 9 (2009) 3060-3065. doi:10.1021/nl901538w.

Q. Guo, G.M. Ford, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Selenization of copper indium gallium disulfide nanocrystal films for thin film solar cells, Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (2009) 002126-002129. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411426.

Q. Guo, H.W. Hillhouse, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink and its use for solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 (2009) 11672-11673. doi:10.1021/ja904981r.

Q. Guo, S.J. Kim, M. Kar, W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, E.A. Stach, et al., Development of CulnSe2 nanocrystal and nanoring inks for low-cost solar cells, Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 2982-2987. doi:10.1021/nl802042g.