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News and Press


Fall 2017


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal received the Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering Research during the 2017 AIChE National Meeting.


Swapnil Deshmukh, Zheyu Jiang, Radhakrishna Tumbalamgooty, Taufik Ridha, and Parham Mobed presented their works during the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting.


Swapnil Deshmukh is recognized at the Chemical Engineering GSO Graduate Research Symposium for Best Poster in the Materials and Nanotechnology Category

Summer 2017


Swapnil Deshmukh and Ryan Ellis attend the Hands on Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE) educational conference and present their work on solution processed CIGSSe


Prof. Agrawal’s Sustainable Full Earth Concept Recognized in News Article from DNA


Dr. Rakesh Agrawal awarded NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) funding for graduate education in STEM fields


Scott McClary and Joseph Andler’s paper titled “Solution-Processed Copper Arsenic Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications” is published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry C


Joseph Andler presents a poster at the 2017 Crystal Growth and Assembly Gordon Research Conference entitled ” Luzonite Nanoparticle to Enrgaite Grain Polymorphic Transition for Thin-film Photovoltaics”


Taufik Ridha presents a poster at the 2017 EFRC-Hub-CMS PI Meeting entitled ” Systems-Level Molecular Mapping of Biomass-derived Molecules to Target Products”


Scott McClary is nominated for the Best Student Presentation Award at the 2017 PVSC


Scott McClary gives a talk at the 2017 Photovoltaic Specialist Conference in Washington DC titled, “Fabrication of Copper Arsenic Sulfide Thin Films from Nanoparticles for Application in Solar Cells”


Patents

U. S. PATENTS

131. “Solution Based Synthesis of Copper-Arsenic-Chalcogen Nanoparticles”, R. Agrawal and R. B. Balow, Provisional Patent Application 62046764, 05 September 2014.

130. “Homogeneous Precursor Formation Method and Device Thereof” R. Agrawal, R. –H. Zhang, B. C. Walker and C. Handwerker, U.S. Patent Application 14/829,913, 12 August, 2015.

129. “Solar Thermal Power and Hydrogen Coproduction Plant”, R. Agrawal, E. Gencer, D. Mallapragada, F. Marechal and M. Tawarmalani, Provisional Patent Application 62021997, 08 July 2014.

128. “Homogeneous Mixtures for Nanoparticle Synthesis”, R. Agrawal and B. C. Walker, U.S. Patent Application 14/549,878, 21 November 2014.

127. “Multicomponent Dividing Wall Columns” R. Agrawal and G. M. Ramapriya, U.S. Patent Application US2015/0119612A1, 30 April 2015.

126. “Production of Renewable Fine Chemicals and Liquid Fuels”, W. N. Delgass, R. Agrawal, F. H. Ribeiro, S. L. Yohe and J.C. Degenstein, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61896119, 27 October 2013.

125. “Catalytic Biomass Conversion Methods, Catalysts, and Method of Making the Same”, W. N. Delgass, R. Agrawal, F. H. Ribeiro, S. L. Yohe, M. Abu-Omar, T. Parsell and P. J. Dietrich, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61896110, 27 October 2013.

124. “Process for distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures into Five Product Streams”, R. Agrawal, V. H. Shah and A.V. Giridhar, Pending US Patent Application US-2010-0025221-A1 (2010).

123. “Process for Distillation of Ethylene from Multicomponent Mixtures”, R. Agrawal and A.V. Giridhar, Provisional US Patent Application No. 61/230,385 (2009).

122. “Thin Films for Photovoltaic Cells”, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Q. J. Guo and M. Kar, U.S. Patent Application 2012/0115312A1. International Patent Application No. PCT/US2010/036259 filed on May 26 (2010).

121. “Synthesis of Multinary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles Comprising of Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se”, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse and Q. J. Guo, U.S. Patent#9,093,190 B2.

120. “Selenization of Precursor layer containing CuInS2 Nanoparticles”, R. Agrawal, Q. J. Guo and H.W. Hillhouse, US Patent#8,722,447B2, (2014)

119. “System and Process for Producing Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon”, R. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,444,725 B2, (2013).

118. “Integrated Gasification-Pyrolysis Process”, R. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,217,210 B2, (2012).

117. “Process for Producing Liquid Hydrocarbon by Pyrolysis of Biomass in Presence of Hydrogen from a Carbon-free Energy Source”, R. Agrawal, M. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,217,211 B2, (2012).

116. “Rapid Synthesis of Ternary and Multinary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles”, Q.J. Guo, R. Agrawal and H.W. Hillhouse, US Patent # 7,829,059B2 (2010)

115. “ Process and Apparatus for the Cryogenic Separation of Air”, P. Higginbotham, R. Agrawal, A. A. Brostow, K. G. Hayes, D. M. Herron and D. P. O’Connor, US Patent #6,662,593 (2003).

114. “Pressure Swing Adsorption Process with Reduced Pressure Equalization Time,” J. Xu, D. L. Rarig, T. A. Cook, K-K Hsu, M. Schoonover and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,565,628 (2003).

113. “Improved Batch Distillation,” R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,550,274 (2003).

112. “Method and System for Cryogenic Refrigeration,” R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski, D. M. Herron and W. C. Kottke. U. S. Patent #6,484,516 (2002).

111. “A Process for Concentrating Fluorine Compounds,” Z. T. Fidkowski, J. F. Cirucci, R. Agrawal and T. E. Conway, U. S. Patent # 6,457,327 (2002).

110. “Single Bed Pressure Swing Adsorption Process”, J. Xu, M. R. Pillarella, D. P. Dee, and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,425,938 (2002).

109. “Reclamation and Separation of Perfluorocarbons Using Condensation,” W. T. McDermott, R. C. Ockovic, A. Schwarz and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,383,257 (2002).

108. “Gas Liquefaction Process with Partial Condensation of Mixed Refrigerant at Intermediate Temperatures”, R. Agrawal, M. J. Roberts and T. A. Daugherty, U. S. Patent #6,347,532 (2002).

107. “Single Mixed Refrigerant Gas Liquefaction Process”, M. J. Roberts, R. Agrawal, and T. L. Daugherty, U. S. Patent #6,347,531 (2002).

106. “Hybrid Cycle for the Production of Liquefied Natural Gas”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,308,531 (2001).

105. “Process for Nitrogen Liquefaction”, A. A. Brostow, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and M. J. Roberts, U. S. Patent #6,298,688 (2001).

104. “Process for Multi-component Separation”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,286,335 (2001).

103. “Purification of Nitrogen Trifluoride by Continuous Cryogenic Distillation”, Z. T. Fidkowski, J. F. Cirucci, R. Agrawal, S. R. Suchdeo and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #6,276,168 (2001).

102. “Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle for Gas Liquefaction”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,269,655 (2001).

101. “Process for the Purification of a Major Component Containing Light and Heavy Impurities”, D. M. Herron and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,263,701 (2001).

100. “Multieffect Distillation for Multi-component Separation”, R. Agrawal, J. Xu, U. S. Patent #6,263,700 (2001).

99. “Process for Separation of Multi-component Fluids Using a Multizone Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,250,106 (2001).

98. “Process for Distillation of Multi-component Fluid and Production of an Argon-Enriched Stream from a Cryogenic Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and J. S. Choe, U. S. Patent #6,240,744 (2001).

97. “Process for the Production of Oxygen and Nitrogen”, P. Higginbotham, D. M. Herron and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,227,005 (2001).

96. “Multieffect Distillation”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,173,584 (2001).

95. “Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle for Gas Liquefaction”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,119,479 (2000).

94. “Distillation Process to Separate Mixtures Containing Three or More Components”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #6,116,051 (2000).

93. “Operable and Efficient Distillation Schemes for Multi-component Separations”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #6,106,674 (2000).

92. “Production of Argon from a Cryogenic Air Separation Process”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal and S. J. Cook, U. S. Patent #5,970,743 (1999).

91. “Improved Distillation Schemes for Multi-component Separations”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,970,742 (1999).

90. “Efficient Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, U. S. Patent #5,966,967 (1999).

89. “Multiple Expander Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, Y. Zhang, U. S. Patent #5,956,974 (1999).

88. “Air Separation with Intermediate Pressure Vaporization and Expansion,” D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,956,973 (1999).

87. “Distillation Process to Separate Mixtures Containing Three or More Components”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,953,936 (1999).

86. “An Air Separation Process Using Warm and Cold Expanders”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,907,959 (1999).

85. “Single Expander and a Cold Compressor Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, Y. Zhang, U. S. Patent #5,901,576 (1999).

84. “Distillation Process Using a Mixing Column to Produce at Least Two Oxygen-Rich Gaseous Streams Having Different Oxygen Purities”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, S. J. Cook, U. S. Patent #5,865,041 (1999).

83. “Process to Produce Nitrogen Using a Double Column and Three Reboiler/Condensers” R. Agrawal and C. C. Latshaw, U. S. Patent #5,761,927 (1998).

82. “Combustion Turbine and Elevated Pressure Air Separation System with Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal, J. Sorensen, D. W. Woodward, A. R. Smith and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent #5,722,259 (1998).

81. “Argon Recovery from Silicon Crystal Furnace”, T. H., Hsiung, Z. T. Fidkowski and R. Agrawal, how to write a term paper U. S. Patent #5,706,674 (1998).

79. “Process to Produce Nitrogen Using a Double Column Plus an Auxiliary Low Pressure Separation Zone”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,697,229 (1997).  “Process to Produce Moderate Purity Oxygen Using a Double Column Plus an Auxiliary Low Pressure Column,” R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski and D. M. Herron, U. S. Patent #5,701,764 (1997).

78. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns,” R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,692,395 (1997).

77. “A Three Column Cryogenic Cycle for the Production of Impure Oxygen and Pure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,682,764 (1997).

76. “Ultra-High Purity Oxygen Distillation Unit Integrated with Ultra-High Purity Nitrogen Purifier”, R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski and L. W. Pruneski, U. S. Patent #5,682,763 (1997).

75. “Process to Produce High Pressure Nitrogen Using a High Pressure Column and One or More Lower Pressure Columns,” R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,682,762 (1997).

74. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,678,426 (1997).

73. “Method and Apparatus for Producing Liquid Products from Air in Various Proportions”, Z. T. Fidkowski, R. Agrawal and S. R. Suchdeo, U. S. Patent #5,678,425 (1997).

72. “VSA Adsorption Process with Energy Recovery”, C. F. Watson, R. Agrawal, P. A. Webley and J. G. Wehrman, U. S. Patent #5,656,067 (1997).

71. “High Temperature Oxygen Production for Ironmaking Processes”, R. Agrawal, M. S. Chen, A. R. Smith, R. M. Thorogood and T. J. Ward, U. S. Patent #5,643,356 (1997).

70. “Process for Introducing a Multi-Component Liquid Feed Stream at Pressure P2 into a Distillation Column Operating at Lower Pressure P1,” R. Agrawal and D. M. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,634,356 (1997).

69. “Process and Apparatus for the Production of Moderate Purity Oxygen”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,592,832 (1997).

68. “Production of Ultra-high Purity Oxygen from Cryogenic Air Separation Plants”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and T. R. White, U. S. Patent # 5,590,543 (1997).

67. “Production of Oxygen by Ion Transport Membranes with Steam Utilization”, D. Kang, S. L. Russek, R. Agrawal, D. D. Brengel and E. P. Foster, U. S. Patent #5,562,754 (1996).

66. “VSA Adsorption Process with Feed/Vacuum Advance and Provide Purge”, R. Agrawal, R. Kumar, T. Naheiri and C. F. Watson, U. S. Patent # 5,540,758 (1996).

65. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns”, R. Agrawal, and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,513,497 (1996).

64. “Process for the Cryogenic Distillation of an Air Feed to Produce a Low to Medium Purity Oxygen Product Using a Single Distillation Column System”, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and L. A. Stapf, U. S. Patent # 5,442,925 (1995).

63. “VSA Adsorption Process with Continuous Operation”, R. Agrawal, R. Kumar, T. Naheiri and C. F. Watson, U. S. Patent # 5,429,666 (1995).

62. “Process for the Cryogenic Distillation of an Air Feed to Produce an Ultra-high Purity Oxygen Product”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,425,241 (1995).

61. “Vacuum Swing Adsorption Process With Mixed Repressurization and Provide Product Depressurization”, C. F. Watson, R. D. Whitley, R. Agrawal and R. Kumar, U. S. Patent # 5,411,578 (1995).

60. “Cryogenic Air Separation Process Producing Elevated Pressure Nitrogen by Pumped Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, B. K. Dawson, J. A. Hopkins and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,355,682 (1994).

59. “Distillation Strategies for the Production of Carbon Monoxide-Free Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, A. K. Modi and W. T. Kleinberg, U. S. Patent # 5,351,492 (1994).

58. “Triple Column Distillation System for Oxygen and Pressurized Nitrogen Production”, R. Agrawal, J. Langston, P. Rodgers and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,341,646 (1994).

57. “Process to Produce Krypton/Xenon Enriched Stream Directly from the Main Air Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent # 5,313,802 (1994).

56. “Process to Produce a Krypton/Xenon Enriched Stream from a Cryogenic Nitrogen Generator”, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent 5,309,719 (1994).

55. “Inter-Column Heat Integration for Multi-Column Distillation System”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent 5,289,688 (1994).

54. “Consolidated Heat Exchanger Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal and W. T. Kleinberg, U. S. Patent # 5,275,004 (1994).

53. “Hybrid Air and Nitrogen Recycle Liquefier”, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,275,003 (1994).

52. “Multiple Reboiler, Double Column, Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycles and their Integration with Gas Turbines”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,257,504 (1993).

51. “Dual Heat Pump Cycles for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,255,524 (1993).

50. “Vaporization of Liquid Oxygen for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal, and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,255,522 (1993).

49. “Multiple Reboiler, Double Column, Air Boosted, Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycle and its Integration with Gas Turbines”, J. Xu and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,251,451 (1993).

48. “Efficient Single Column Air Separation Cycle and its Integration with Gas Turbines”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,251,450 (1993).

47. “Single Heat Pump Cycle for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,245,831 (1993).

46. “Production of Non Cyclic Polyalkylene Polyamines”, R. Agrawal and J. H. Frey, U. S. Patent # 5,243,078 (1993).

45. “Inter-Column Heat Integration for Multicolumn Distillation System”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,230,217 (1993).

44. “Process and System for Controlling a Cryogenic Air Separation Unit During Rapid Changes in Production”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Espie, D. P. O’Connor, J. A. Mandler, A. R. Smith and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,224,336 (1993).

43. “Coproduction of a Normal Purity and Ultra High Purity Volatile Component from a MultiComponent Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,218,825 (1993).

42. “Cryogenic Process for Producing Ultra High Purity Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,205,127 (1993).

41. “Recovery of Dissolved Light Gases from a Liquid Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,167,125 (1992).

40. “Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycles with Liquid Production”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,165,245 (1992).

38. “Use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Coupled with a Cold Expander to Produce Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #5,141,543 (1992). 39. “Method of Purifying Argon through Cryogenic Adsorption”, K. W. Kovak, R. Agrawal, and J. C. Peterson, U. S. Patent #5,159,816 (1992).

37. “Production of Liquid Nitrogen Using Liquefied Natural Gas as Sole Refrigerant”, R. Agrawal and C. L. Ayres, U. S. Patent #5,139,547 (1992).

36. “Production of Nitrogen Free of Light Impurities”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,137,559 (1992).

35. “Liquefied Natural Gas Refrigeration Transfer to a Cryogenics Air Separation Unit Using High Pressure Nitrogen Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,137,558 (1992).

34. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Moderate Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,129,932 (1992).

33. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Ultra High Purity Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,123,947 (1992).

32. “Cryogenic Production of Krypton and Xenon from Air”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent # 5,122,173 (1992).

31. “Enhanced Recovery of Argon from Cryogenic Air Separation Cycles”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,114,449 (1992).

30. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Moderate Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,077,978 (1992).

29. “Triple Distillation Column Nitrogen Generator with Plural Reboiler/Condensers”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,069,699 (1991).

28. “Cryogenic Process for the Production of an Oxygen-free and Methane-free Krypton/Xenon Product”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent #5,067,976 (1991).

27. “Cryogenic Process for the Production of Methane-free Krypton/Xenon Product”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent #5,063,746 (1991).

26. “Production of Ultra High Purity Oxygen from Cryogenic Air Separation Plants,” T. E. Cormier, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and A. Prentice, U. S. Patent #5,049,173 (1991).

25. “Alkylation of Aromatic Amines Over Thermally Pretreated Zeolites”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #5,026,912 (1991).

24. “Cryogenic Air Separation Process for the Production of Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,006,139 (1991).

23. “Nitrogen Generators with Dual Reboiler/Condensers in the Low Pressure Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,006,137 (1991).

22. “Production of Oxygen – Lean Argon from Air”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #4,994,098 (1991).

21. “Production of High Purity Argon”, J. A. Hopkins, R. M. McGuinness, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent #4,983,194 (1991).

20. “Cryogenic Process for Producing Low-Purity Oxygen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,947,649 (1990).

19. “Air Separation Process for the Production of Oxygen-Rich and Nitrogen-Rich Products”, D. W. Woodward and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,936,099 (1990).

18. “High Pressure Nitrogen Production Cryogenic Process,” R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,927,441 (1990).

17. “Alkylation of Toluenediamine and Para-Phenylenediamine with Isobutylene in the Presence of Acidic, Crystalline Molecular Sieves”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,914,237 (1990).

16. “Process for the Production of High Pressure Nitrogen with Split Reboil-Condensing Duty”, R. Agrawal, S. R. Auvil and K. B. Wilson, U. S. Patent #4,883,519 (1989).

15. “Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Olefins on Partially Dealuminated Zeolites”, R. Agrawal, M. Deeba and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,876,377 (1989).

14. “Process for the Production of High Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,872,893 (1989).

13. “Process for the Production of High Purity Argon”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,834,956 (1989).

12. “Process for the Production of Argon”, R. Agrawal, S. R. Auvil and J. S. Choe, U. S. Patent #4,817,392 (1989).

11. “Process for Recovering Helium from a Multi-Component Gas Stream”, J. S. Choe, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,717,407 (1988).

10. “Liquefied Gases Using an Air Recycle Liquefier”, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,715,873 (1987).

9. “Liquid Products Using An Air and a Nitrogen Recycle Liquefier”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,705,548 (1987).

8. “Process for Separating Components of a Gas Stream”, J. S. Choe, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,701,187 (1987).

7. “Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,662,918 (1987).

6. “Process for the Separation of Air”, T. E. Cormier and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,662,917 (1987).

5. “Process for the Separation of Air”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,662,916 (1987).

4. “Process for Recovering Hydrogen from a Multi-Component Gas Stream”, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,654,063 (1987).

3. “Process for the Generation of Gaseous and/or Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,595,405 (1986).

2. “Dual Feed Air Pressure Nitrogen Generator Cycle”, R. Agrawal and K. W. Kovak, U. S. Patent #4,543,115 (1985).

1. “Process and Apparatus for the Separation of Air”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,464,188 (1984).