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Fall 2021


Energy System Group Members Zewei Chen, Yiru Li, Wasiu Peter Oladipupo, Edwin Rodriguez, Gary Sawyer, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Alternative ordering of process hierarchy for more efficient and cost-effective valorization of shale resources” was published in Cell Reports Physical Science.

Energy System Group Undergraduate Researcher Arsh Bhatia received OUR scholarship for 2021-2022 academic year. Congratulations Arsh!


Summer 2021


Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Zewei Chen, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Energy-efficient membrane cascades for industrial separations” was published in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering.

Separations Research Group Members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “A Simple Criterion for Feasibility of Heat Integration between Distillation Streams Based on Relative Volatilities” was published in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Optimal design of membrane cascades for gaseous and liquid mixtures via MINLP” was published in Journal of Membrane Science.

Separations Research Group member Tony Joseph Mathew successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Tony!

Separations Research Group Members Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Methods to Assess Numerous Distillation Schemes for Binary Mixtures” was published in Chemical Engineering Research and Design.


Spring 2021


Tony Joseph Mathew and Zewei Chen both gave oral presentations at the 2021 AIChE Spring Meeting

Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Dattatray Deshmukh received the Outstanding Research Award 2021 from the College of Engineering. Congratulations, Swapnil!

Separations Research Group Member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Systematic Analysis Reveals Thermal Separations Are Not Necessarily Most Energy Intensive” was published in Joule.


Fall 2020


Energy Systems Research Group member Zewei Chen received the Bill Murray Fellowship for 2020-21 academic year. Congratulations Zewei!


Separations Research Group members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Quickly Assess Distillation Columns” was published in Chemical Engineering Progress.


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh won the Second Place Award in the 2020 AIChE Graduate Student Award Competition in the Inorganic Chemistry Area. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Summer 2020


Tony Joseph Mathew received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Energy and Process Intensification & Biotechnology category, and won the Best Overall award, at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, Tony!


David Rokke received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Material Science category at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, David!


Solar Energy Research Group members David Rokke and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Annual AIChE conference are accepted for an oral presentation and two Graduate Student Award Oral Presentations respectively.


Separations Research Group member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Adrian!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Separations Research Group Member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty’s manuscript “Misconceptions about Efficiency and Maturity of Distillation” was published in AIChE Journal.


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty is a winner of the 2020 AIChE Separations Division Graduate Student Research Award in the Distillation and Absorption area. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh is a winner of the best student paper award at the 47th IEEE PVSC. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Zewei Chen, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Classification and Comparison of Dividing Walls for Distillation Columns” was published in Processes.


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is interviewed on the Purdue University College of Engineering’s podcast, “Sounds Like the Future” on Episode 08: Advancing Sustainability Across Disciplines. Prof. Agrawal discusses his research and interests centered around sustainability


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh, Kyle Weideman, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Analyzing and Tuning the Chalcogen–Amine–Thiol Complexes for Tailoring of Chalcogenide Syntheses” was published in Inorganic Chemistry


Spring 2020


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis, Jonathan Turnley, David Rokke, Jacob Fields, Essam Alruqobah, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Hybrid Ligand Exchange of Cu(In,Ga)S2 Nanopartcles for Carbon Impurity Removal in Solution Processed Photovoltaics” was published in Chemistry of Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Essam AlRuqobah’s and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells” was published in ACS Applied Energy Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Joseph Andler successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Joe!


Solar Energy Research Group members, Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to IEEE’s 2020 PVSC conference were both selected for (now virtual) oral presentations


Solar Energy Research Group member, David Rokke, is accepted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Hands on Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE) 2020 program, a week long on-site educational program with field experts at NREL


Group member Tony Mathew received the 2020 Estus H. and Vashti L. Magoon Award for Excellence in Teaching by the College of Engineering for his teaching assistantship of CHE660: Chemical Reaction Engineering during the Spring 2019 semester


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and alumni Xianyi Hu are co-authors of a newly published book, “Sustainable Photovoltaics,” which is an overview of various research projects that were a part of the SERIIUS funding network


Group members Ryan Ellis, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Zewei Chen all receive $1000 travel grants from the Davidson School of Chemical Engineering for conference travel


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Spring MRS conference are accepted for oral presentations


Fall 2019


Solar Energy Research Group member Ryan Ellis wins first place in the Electronics and Photonic Materials Graduate Student Awards Session at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting for his oral presentation. Congratulations, Ryan!


Prof. Agrawal is an invited panelist for the Meet the Innovators presentation and panel discussion at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Ryan Ellis, Kyle Weideman, Zewei Chen, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Yiru Li, and Peter Oladipupo all give oral presentations at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh,* Ryan Ellis,* David Rokke, Dwi Sutandar and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish a paper titled, “Versatile Colloidal Synthesis of Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles from Elemental Precursors using Amine-Thiol Chemistry” in Chemistry of Materials


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is awarded the Phillip C. Wankat Graduate Teaching Award in Chemical Engineering recognizing his achievements as an instructor in graduate-level courses. Congratulations, Prof. Agrawal!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal writes a “Behind the Paper” blog post for Nature Sustainability describing the motivation behind the recently published paper


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a second blog post on Medium discussing the concept of Aglectric Farming


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a blog post on Medium featuring the NRT team and their research along with the new Nature Sustainability publication


Group alumni Caleb Miskin and current group members Yiru Li, Ryan Ellis, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish, “Sustainable co-production of food and solar power to relax land-use constraints” in Nature Sustainability


Patents

U. S. PATENTS

131. “Solution Based Synthesis of Copper-Arsenic-Chalcogen Nanoparticles”, R. Agrawal and R. B. Balow, Provisional Patent Application 62046764, 05 September 2014.

130. “Homogeneous Precursor Formation Method and Device Thereof” R. Agrawal, R. H. Zhang, B. C. Walker and C. Handwerker, U.S. Patent Application 14/829,913, 12 August, 2015.

129. “Solar Thermal Power and Hydrogen Coproduction Plant”, R. Agrawal, E. Gencer, D. Mallapragada, F. Marechal and M. Tawarmalani, Provisional Patent Application 62021997, 08 July 2014.

128. “Homogeneous Mixtures for Nanoparticle Synthesis”, R. Agrawal and B. C. Walker, U.S. Patent Application 14/549,878, 21 November 2014.

127. “Multicomponent Dividing Wall Columns” R. Agrawal and G. M. Ramapriya, U.S. Patent Application US2015/0119612A1, 30 April 2015.

126. “Production of Renewable Fine Chemicals and Liquid Fuels”, W. N. Delgass, R. Agrawal, F. H. Ribeiro, S. L. Yohe and J.C. Degenstein, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61896119, 27 October 2013.

125. “Catalytic Biomass Conversion Methods, Catalysts, and Method of Making the Same”, W. N. Delgass, R. Agrawal, F. H. Ribeiro, S. L. Yohe, M. Abu-Omar, T. Parsell and P. J. Dietrich, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61896110, 27 October 2013.

124. “Process for distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures into Five Product Streams”, R. Agrawal, V. H. Shah and A.V. Giridhar, Pending US Patent Application US-2010-0025221-A1 (2010).

123. “Process for Distillation of Ethylene from Multicomponent Mixtures”, R. Agrawal and A.V. Giridhar, Provisional US Patent Application No. 61/230,385 (2009).

122. “Thin Films for Photovoltaic Cells”, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse, Q. J. Guo and M. Kar, U.S. Patent Application 2012/0115312A1. International Patent Application No. PCT/US2010/036259 filed on May 26 (2010).

121. “Synthesis of Multinary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles Comprising of Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se”, R. Agrawal, H.W. Hillhouse and Q. J. Guo, U.S. Patent#9,093,190 B2.

120. “Selenization of Precursor layer containing CuInS2 Nanoparticles”, R. Agrawal, Q. J. Guo and H.W. Hillhouse, US Patent#8,722,447B2, (2014)

119. “System and Process for Producing Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon”, R. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,444,725 B2, (2013).

118. “Integrated Gasification-Pyrolysis Process”, R. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,217,210 B2, (2012).

117. “Process for Producing Liquid Hydrocarbon by Pyrolysis of Biomass in Presence of Hydrogen from a Carbon-free Energy Source”, R. Agrawal, M. Agrawal and N. R. Singh, US Patent#8,217,211 B2, (2012).

116. “Rapid Synthesis of Ternary and Multinary Chalcogenide Nanoparticles”, Q.J. Guo, R. Agrawal and H.W. Hillhouse, US Patent # 7,829,059B2 (2010)

115. “Process and Apparatus for the Cryogenic Separation of Air”, P. Higginbotham, R. Agrawal, A. A. Brostow, K. G. Hayes, D. M. Herron and D. P. O’Connor, US Patent #6,662,593 (2003).

114. “Pressure Swing Adsorption Process with Reduced Pressure Equalization Time,” J. Xu, D. L. Rarig, T. A. Cook, K-K Hsu, M. Schoonover and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,565,628 (2003).

113. “Improved Batch Distillation,” R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,550,274 (2003).

112. “Method and System for Cryogenic Refrigeration”, R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski, D. M. Herron and W. C. Kottke. U. S. Patent #6,484,516 (2002).

111. “A Process for Concentrating Fluorine Compounds”, Z. T. Fidkowski, J. F. Cirucci, R. Agrawal and T. E. Conway, U. S. Patent # 6,457,327 (2002).

110. “Single Bed Pressure Swing Adsorption Process”, J. Xu, M. R. Pillarella, D. P. Dee, and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,425,938 (2002).

109. “Reclamation and Separation of Perfluorocarbons Using Condensation”, W. T. McDermott, R. C. Ockovic, A. Schwarz and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,383,257 (2002).

108. “Gas Liquefaction Process with Partial Condensation of Mixed Refrigerant at Intermediate Temperatures”, R. Agrawal, M. J. Roberts and T. A. Daugherty, U. S. Patent #6,347,532 (2002).

107. “Single Mixed Refrigerant Gas Liquefaction Process”, M. J. Roberts, R. Agrawal, and T. L. Daugherty, U. S. Patent #6,347,531 (2002).

106. “Hybrid Cycle for the Production of Liquefied Natural Gas”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,308,531 (2001).

105. “Process for Nitrogen Liquefaction”, A. A. Brostow, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and M. J. Roberts, U. S. Patent #6,298,688 (2001).

104. “Process for Multi-component Separation”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,286,335 (2001).

103. “Purification of Nitrogen Trifluoride by Continuous Cryogenic Distillation”, Z. T. Fidkowski, J. F. Cirucci, R. Agrawal, S. R. Suchdeo and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #6,276,168 (2001).

102. “Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle for Gas Liquefaction”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,269,655 (2001).

101. “Process for the Purification of a Major Component Containing Light and Heavy Impurities”, D. M. Herron and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,263,701 (2001).

100. “Multieffect Distillation for Multi-component Separation”, R. Agrawal, J. Xu, U. S. Patent #6,263,700 (2001).

99. “Process for Separation of Multi-component Fluids Using a Multizone Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,250,106 (2001).

98. “Process for Distillation of Multi-component Fluid and Production of an Argon-Enriched Stream from a Cryogenic Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and J. S. Choe, U. S. Patent #6,240,744 (2001).

97. “Process for the Production of Oxygen and Nitrogen”, P. Higginbotham, D. M. Herron and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,227,005 (2001).

96. “Multieffect Distillation”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,173,584 (2001).

95. “Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle for Gas Liquefaction”, M. J. Roberts and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #6,119,479 (2000).

94. “Distillation Process to Separate Mixtures Containing Three or More Components”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #6,116,051 (2000).

93. “Operable and Efficient Distillation Schemes for Multi-component Separations”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #6,106,674 (2000).

92. “Production of Argon from a Cryogenic Air Separation Process”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal and S. J. Cook, U. S. Patent #5,970,743 (1999).

91. “Improved Distillation Schemes for Multi-component Separations”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,970,742 (1999).

90. “Efficient Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, U. S. Patent #5,966,967 (1999).

89. “Multiple Expander Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, Y. Zhang, U. S. Patent #5,956,974 (1999).

88. “Air Separation with Intermediate Pressure Vaporization and Expansion”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,956,973 (1999).

87. “Distillation Process to Separate Mixtures Containing Three or More Components”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,953,936 (1999).

86. “An Air Separation Process Using Warm and Cold Expanders”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,907,959 (1999).

85. “Single Expander and a Cold Compressor Process to Produce Oxygen”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, Y. Zhang, U. S. Patent #5,901,576 (1999).

84. “Distillation Process Using a Mixing Column to Produce at Least Two Oxygen-Rich Gaseous Streams Having Different Oxygen Purities”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron, S. J. Cook, U. S. Patent #5,865,041 (1999).

83. “Process to Produce Nitrogen Using a Double Column and Three Reboiler/Condensers” R. Agrawal and C. C. Latshaw, U. S. Patent #5,761,927 (1998).

82. “Combustion Turbine and Elevated Pressure Air Separation System with Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal, J. Sorensen, D. W. Woodward, A. R. Smith and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent #5,722,259 (1998).

81. “Argon Recovery from Silicon Crystal Furnace”, T. H., Hsiung, Z. T. Fidkowski and R. Agrawal, how to write a term paper U. S. Patent #5,706,674 (1998).

80. “Process to Produce Nitrogen Using a Double Column Plus an Auxiliary Low Pressure Separation Zone”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,697,229 (1997).

79. “Process to Produce Moderate Purity Oxygen Using a Double Column Plus an Auxiliary Low Pressure Column”, R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski and D. M. Herron, U. S. Patent #5,701,764 (1997).

78. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,692,395 (1997).

77. “A Three Column Cryogenic Cycle for the Production of Impure Oxygen and Pure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,682,764 (1997).

76. “Ultra-High Purity Oxygen Distillation Unit Integrated with Ultra-High Purity Nitrogen Purifier”, R. Agrawal, Z. T. Fidkowski and L. W. Pruneski, U. S. Patent #5,682,763 (1997).

75. “Process to Produce High Pressure Nitrogen Using a High Pressure Column and One or More Lower Pressure Columns”, R. Agrawal and Z. T. Fidkowski, U. S. Patent #5,682,762 (1997).

74. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,678,426 (1997).

73. “Method and Apparatus for Producing Liquid Products from Air in Various Proportions”, Z. T. Fidkowski, R. Agrawal and S. R. Suchdeo, U. S. Patent #5,678,425 (1997).

72. “VSA Adsorption Process with Energy Recovery”, C. F. Watson, R. Agrawal, P. A. Webley and J. G. Wehrman, U. S. Patent #5,656,067 (1997).

71. “High Temperature Oxygen Production for Ironmaking Processes”, R. Agrawal, M. S. Chen, A. R. Smith, R. M. Thorogood and T. J. Ward, U. S. Patent #5,643,356 (1997).

70. “Process for Introducing a Multi-Component Liquid Feed Stream at Pressure P2 into a Distillation Column Operating at Lower Pressure P1”, R. Agrawal and D. M. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,634,356 (1997).

69. “Process and Apparatus for the Production of Moderate Purity Oxygen”, D. M. Herron, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,592,832 (1997).

68. “Production of Ultra-high Purity Oxygen from Cryogenic Air Separation Plants”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Herron and T. R. White, U. S. Patent # 5,590,543 (1997).

67. “Production of Oxygen by Ion Transport Membranes with Steam Utilization”, D. Kang, S. L. Russek, R. Agrawal, D. D. Brengel and E. P. Foster, U. S. Patent #5,562,754 (1996).

66. “VSA Adsorption Process with Feed/Vacuum Advance and Provide Purge”, R. Agrawal, R. Kumar, T. Naheiri and C. F. Watson, U. S. Patent # 5,540,758 (1996).

65. “Separation of Fluid Mixtures in Multiple Distillation Columns”, R. Agrawal, and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,513,497 (1996).

64. “Process for the Cryogenic Distillation of an Air Feed to Produce a Low to Medium Purity Oxygen Product Using a Single Distillation Column System”, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and L. A. Stapf, U. S. Patent # 5,442,925 (1995).

63. “VSA Adsorption Process with Continuous Operation”, R. Agrawal, R. Kumar, T. Naheiri and C. F. Watson, U. S. Patent # 5,429,666 (1995).

62. “Process for the Cryogenic Distillation of an Air Feed to Produce an Ultra-high Purity Oxygen Product”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,425,241 (1995).

61. “Vacuum Swing Adsorption Process With Mixed Repressurization and Provide Product Depressurization”, C. F. Watson, R. D. Whitley, R. Agrawal and R. Kumar, U. S. Patent # 5,411,578 (1995).

60. “Cryogenic Air Separation Process Producing Elevated Pressure Nitrogen by Pumped Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, B. K. Dawson, J. A. Hopkins and J. Xu, U. S. Patent #5,355,682 (1994).

59. “Distillation Strategies for the Production of Carbon Monoxide-Free Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, A. K. Modi and W. T. Kleinberg, U. S. Patent # 5,351,492 (1994).

58. “Triple Column Distillation System for Oxygen and Pressurized Nitrogen Production”, R. Agrawal, J. Langston, P. Rodgers and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,341,646 (1994).

57. “Process to Produce Krypton/Xenon Enriched Stream Directly from the Main Air Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent # 5,313,802 (1994).

56. “Process to Produce a Krypton/Xenon Enriched Stream from a Cryogenic Nitrogen Generator”, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent 5,309,719 (1994).

55. “Inter-Column Heat Integration for Multi-Column Distillation System”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent 5,289,688 (1994).

54. “Consolidated Heat Exchanger Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal and W. T. Kleinberg, U. S. Patent # 5,275,004 (1994).

53. “Hybrid Air and Nitrogen Recycle Liquefier”, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,275,003 (1994).

52. “Multiple Reboiler, Double Column, Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycles and their Integration with Gas Turbines”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,257,504 (1993).

51. “Dual Heat Pump Cycles for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,255,524 (1993).

50. “Vaporization of Liquid Oxygen for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal, and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,255,522 (1993).

49. “Multiple Reboiler, Double Column, Air Boosted, Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycle and its Integration with Gas Turbines”, J. Xu and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,251,451 (1993).

48. “Efficient Single Column Air Separation Cycle and its Integration with Gas Turbines”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,251,450 (1993).

47. “Single Heat Pump Cycle for Increased Argon Recovery”, R. Agrawal and T. F. Yee, U. S. Patent # 5,245,831 (1993).

46. “Production of Non Cyclic Polyalkylene Polyamines”, R. Agrawal and J. H. Frey, U. S. Patent # 5,243,078 (1993).

45. “Inter-Column Heat Integration for Multicolumn Distillation System”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,230,217 (1993).

44. “Process and System for Controlling a Cryogenic Air Separation Unit During Rapid Changes in Production”, R. Agrawal, D. M. Espie, D. P. O’Connor, J. A. Mandler, A. R. Smith and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,224,336 (1993).

43. “Coproduction of a Normal Purity and Ultra High Purity Volatile Component from a MultiComponent Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,218,825 (1993).

42. “Cryogenic Process for Producing Ultra High Purity Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,205,127 (1993).

41. “Recovery of Dissolved Light Gases from a Liquid Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,167,125 (1992).

40. “Elevated Pressure Air Separation Cycles with Liquid Production”, R. Agrawal and J. Xu, U. S. Patent # 5,165,245 (1992).

38. “Use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Coupled with a Cold Expander to Produce Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #5,141,543 (1992). 39. “Method of Purifying Argon through Cryogenic Adsorption”, K. W. Kovak, R. Agrawal, and J. C. Peterson, U. S. Patent #5,159,816 (1992).

37. “Production of Liquid Nitrogen Using Liquefied Natural Gas as Sole Refrigerant”, R. Agrawal and C. L. Ayres, U. S. Patent #5,139,547 (1992).

36. “Production of Nitrogen Free of Light Impurities”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,137,559 (1992).

35. “Liquefied Natural Gas Refrigeration Transfer to a Cryogenics Air Separation Unit Using High Pressure Nitrogen Stream”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #5,137,558 (1992).

34. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Moderate Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,129,932 (1992).

33. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Ultra High Purity Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,123,947 (1992).

32. “Cryogenic Production of Krypton and Xenon from Air”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent # 5,122,173 (1992).

31. “Enhanced Recovery of Argon from Cryogenic Air Separation Cycles”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,114,449 (1992).

30. “Cryogenic Process for the Separation of Air to Produce Moderate Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent # 5,077,978 (1992).

29. “Triple Distillation Column Nitrogen Generator with Plural Reboiler/Condensers”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent # 5,069,699 (1991).

28. “Cryogenic Process for the Production of an Oxygen-free and Methane-free Krypton/Xenon Product”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent #5,067,976 (1991).

27. “Cryogenic Process for the Production of Methane-free Krypton/Xenon Product”, R. Agrawal and B. E. Farrell, U. S. Patent #5,063,746 (1991).

26. “Production of Ultra High Purity Oxygen from Cryogenic Air Separation Plants,” T. E. Cormier, R. Agrawal, D. W. Woodward and A. Prentice, U. S. Patent #5,049,173 (1991).

25. “Alkylation of Aromatic Amines Over Thermally Pretreated Zeolites”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #5,026,912 (1991).

24. “Cryogenic Air Separation Process for the Production of Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,006,139 (1991).

23. “Nitrogen Generators with Dual Reboiler/Condensers in the Low Pressure Distillation Column”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #5,006,137 (1991).

22. “Production of Oxygen – Lean Argon from Air”, R. Agrawal and D. W. Woodward, U. S. Patent #4,994,098 (1991).

21. “Production of High Purity Argon”, J. A. Hopkins, R. M. McGuinness, R. Agrawal and S. L. Feldman, U. S. Patent #4,983,194 (1991).

20. “Cryogenic Process for Producing Low-Purity Oxygen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,947,649 (1990).

19. “Air Separation Process for the Production of Oxygen-Rich and Nitrogen-Rich Products”, D. W. Woodward and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,936,099 (1990).

18. “High Pressure Nitrogen Production Cryogenic Process,” R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,927,441 (1990).

17. “Alkylation of Toluenediamine and Para-Phenylenediamine with Isobutylene in the Presence of Acidic, Crystalline Molecular Sieves”, R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,914,237 (1990).

16. “Process for the Production of High Pressure Nitrogen with Split Reboil-Condensing Duty”, R. Agrawal, S. R. Auvil and K. B. Wilson, U. S. Patent #4,883,519 (1989).

15. “Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Olefins on Partially Dealuminated Zeolites”, R. Agrawal, M. Deeba and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,876,377 (1989).

14. “Process for the Production of High Pressure Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,872,893 (1989).

13. “Process for the Production of High Purity Argon”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,834,956 (1989).

12. “Process for the Production of Argon”, R. Agrawal, S. R. Auvil and J. S. Choe, U. S. Patent #4,817,392 (1989).

11. “Process for Recovering Helium from a Multi-Component Gas Stream”, J. S. Choe, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,717,407 (1988).

10. “Liquefied Gases Using an Air Recycle Liquefier”, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,715,873 (1987).

9. “Liquid Products Using An Air and a Nitrogen Recycle Liquefier”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,705,548 (1987).

8. “Process for Separating Components of a Gas Stream”, J. S. Choe, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,701,187 (1987).

7. “Air Separation Process”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,662,918 (1987).

6. “Process for the Separation of Air”, T. E. Cormier and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,662,917 (1987).

5. “Process for the Separation of Air”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,662,916 (1987).

4. “Process for Recovering Hydrogen from a Multi-Component Gas Stream”, S. R. Auvil and R. Agrawal, U. S. Patent #4,654,063 (1987).

3. “Process for the Generation of Gaseous and/or Liquid Nitrogen”, R. Agrawal and S. R. Auvil, U. S. Patent #4,595,405 (1986).

2. “Dual Feed Air Pressure Nitrogen Generator Cycle”, R. Agrawal and K. W. Kovak, U. S. Patent #4,543,115 (1985).

1. “Process and Apparatus for the Separation of Air”, R. Agrawal and T. E. Cormier, U. S. Patent #4,464,188 (1984).