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Recent News

Fall 2021


Energy System Group Members Zewei Chen, Yiru Li, Wasiu Peter Oladipupo, Edwin Rodriguez, Gary Sawyer, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Alternative ordering of process hierarchy for more efficient and cost-effective valorization of shale resources” was published in Cell Reports Physical Science.

Energy System Group Undergraduate Researcher Arsh Bhatia received OUR scholarship for 2021-2022 academic year. Congratulations Arsh!


Summer 2021


Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Zewei Chen, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Energy-efficient membrane cascades for industrial separations” was published in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering.

Separations Research Group Members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “A Simple Criterion for Feasibility of Heat Integration between Distillation Streams Based on Relative Volatilities” was published in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

Separations Research Group Members Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Optimal design of membrane cascades for gaseous and liquid mixtures via MINLP” was published in Journal of Membrane Science.

Separations Research Group member Tony Joseph Mathew successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Tony!

Separations Research Group Members Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Methods to Assess Numerous Distillation Schemes for Binary Mixtures” was published in Chemical Engineering Research and Design.


Spring 2021


Tony Joseph Mathew and Zewei Chen both gave oral presentations at the 2021 AIChE Spring Meeting

Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Dattatray Deshmukh received the Outstanding Research Award 2021 from the College of Engineering. Congratulations, Swapnil!

Separations Research Group Member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Systematic Analysis Reveals Thermal Separations Are Not Necessarily Most Energy Intensive” was published in Joule.


Fall 2020


Energy Systems Research Group member Zewei Chen received the Bill Murray Fellowship for 2020-21 academic year. Congratulations Zewei!


Separations Research Group members Tony Joseph Mathew, Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty, Prof. Mohit Tawarmalani, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript “Quickly Assess Distillation Columns” was published in Chemical Engineering Progress.


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh won the Second Place Award in the 2020 AIChE Graduate Student Award Competition in the Inorganic Chemistry Area. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Summer 2020


Tony Joseph Mathew received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Energy and Process Intensification & Biotechnology category, and won the Best Overall award, at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, Tony!


David Rokke received first place for his Oral Presentation in the Material Science category at the 29th Annual Symposium organized by Chemical Engineering Graduate Student Organization. Congratulations, David!


Solar Energy Research Group members David Rokke and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Annual AIChE conference are accepted for an oral presentation and two Graduate Student Award Oral Presentations respectively.


Separations Research Group member Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Adrian!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Separations Research Group Member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty’s manuscript “Misconceptions about Efficiency and Maturity of Distillation” was published in AIChE Journal.


Separations Research Group member Radhakrishna Tumbalam Gooty is a winner of the 2020 AIChE Separations Division Graduate Student Research Award in the Distillation and Absorption area. Congratulations Radhakrishna!


Solar Energy Research Group member Swapnil Deshmukh is a winner of the best student paper award at the 47th IEEE PVSC. Congratulations Swapnil!


Separations Research Group member Zewei Chen, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Classification and Comparison of Dividing Walls for Distillation Columns” was published in Processes.


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is interviewed on the Purdue University College of Engineering’s podcast, “Sounds Like the Future” on Episode 08: Advancing Sustainability Across Disciplines. Prof. Agrawal discusses his research and interests centered around sustainability


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh, Kyle Weideman, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Analyzing and Tuning the Chalcogen–Amine–Thiol Complexes for Tailoring of Chalcogenide Syntheses” was published in Inorganic Chemistry


Spring 2020


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis, Jonathan Turnley, David Rokke, Jacob Fields, Essam Alruqobah, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Hybrid Ligand Exchange of Cu(In,Ga)S2 Nanopartcles for Carbon Impurity Removal in Solution Processed Photovoltaics” was published in Chemistry of Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Essam AlRuqobah’s and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal’s manuscript, “Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells” was published in ACS Applied Energy Materials


Solar Energy Research Group member Joseph Andler successfully defended his thesis. Congratulations Joe!


Solar Energy Research Group members, Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to IEEE’s 2020 PVSC conference were both selected for (now virtual) oral presentations


Solar Energy Research Group member, David Rokke, is accepted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Hands on Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE) 2020 program, a week long on-site educational program with field experts at NREL


Group member Tony Mathew received the 2020 Estus H. and Vashti L. Magoon Award for Excellence in Teaching by the College of Engineering for his teaching assistantship of CHE660: Chemical Reaction Engineering during the Spring 2019 semester


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and alumni Xianyi Hu are co-authors of a newly published book, “Sustainable Photovoltaics,” which is an overview of various research projects that were a part of the SERIIUS funding network


Group members Ryan Ellis, Swapnil Deshmukh, and Zewei Chen all receive $1000 travel grants from the Davidson School of Chemical Engineering for conference travel


Solar Energy Research Group members Ryan Ellis and Swapnil Deshmukh’s submissions to the 2020 Spring MRS conference are accepted for oral presentations


Fall 2019


Solar Energy Research Group member Ryan Ellis wins first place in the Electronics and Photonic Materials Graduate Student Awards Session at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting for his oral presentation. Congratulations, Ryan!


Prof. Agrawal is an invited panelist for the Meet the Innovators presentation and panel discussion at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Ryan Ellis, Kyle Weideman, Zewei Chen, Jose Adrian Chavez Velasco, Yiru Li, and Peter Oladipupo all give oral presentations at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting


Solar Energy Research Group members Swapnil Deshmukh,* Ryan Ellis,* David Rokke, Dwi Sutandar and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish a paper titled, “Versatile Colloidal Synthesis of Metal Chalcogenide Nanoparticles from Elemental Precursors using Amine-Thiol Chemistry” in Chemistry of Materials


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal is awarded the Phillip C. Wankat Graduate Teaching Award in Chemical Engineering recognizing his achievements as an instructor in graduate-level courses. Congratulations, Prof. Agrawal!


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal writes a “Behind the Paper” blog post for Nature Sustainability describing the motivation behind the recently published paper


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a second blog post on Medium discussing the concept of Aglectric Farming


Prof. Rakesh Agrawal and Prof. Mitch Tunistra write a blog post on Medium featuring the NRT team and their research along with the new Nature Sustainability publication


Group alumni Caleb Miskin and current group members Yiru Li, Ryan Ellis, and Prof. Rakesh Agrawal publish, “Sustainable co-production of food and solar power to relax land-use constraints” in Nature Sustainability


Publications – Separations

J. A. Chavez Velasco, Z. Chen, R. Tumbalam Gooty, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Energy-efficient membrane cascades for industrial separations. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 50 (2021) 359-364. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-88506-5.50057-7.

T. J. Mathew, R. Tumbalam Gooty, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. A Simple Criterion for Feasibility of Heat Integration between Distillation Streams Based on Relative Volatilities. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 60-28 (2021) 10286–10302. doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01036.

J. A. Chavez Velasco, R. Tumbalam Gooty, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Optimal design of membrane cascades for gaseous and liquid mixtures via MINLP. Journal of Membrane Science, 636 (2021) 119514. doi: 10.1016/j.memsci.2021.119514.

R. Tumbalam Gooty, J. A. Chavez Velasco, R. Agrawal. Methods to Assess Numerous Distillation Schemes for Binary Mixtures. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 172 (2021) 1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.cherd.2021.05.022.

J. A. Chavez Velasco, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Systematic Analysis Reveals Thermal Separations Are Not Necessarily Most Energy Intensive. Joule, 5-2 (2021) 330-343. doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.12.002.

T. J. Mathew, R. Tumbalam Gooty, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Quickly Assess Distillation Columns. Chemical Engineering Progress, December (2020) 27-34.

R. Agrawal, R. Tumbalam Gooty. Misconceptions about Efficiency and Maturity of Distillation. AIChE Journal, 66-8 (2020) e16294. doi: 10.1002/aic.16294

Z. Chen, R. Agrawal. Classification and Comparison of Dividing Walls for Distillation Columns. Processes, 8-6 (2020) 699. doi: 10.3390/pr8060699

T. J. Mathew, R. Tumbalam Gooty, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. 110th Anniversary: Thermal Coupling via Heat Transfer: A Potential Route to Simple Distillation Configurations with Lower Heat Duty. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 58-47 (2019) 21671-21678. doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.9b04689

Z. Jiang, Z. Chen, J. Huff, A. Shenvi, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Global Minimization of Total Exergy Loss of Multicomponent Distillation Configurations. AIChE Journal, 65-11 (2019) e16737. doi: 10.1002/aic.16737

Z. Jiang, R. Agrawal. Process Intensification in Multicomponent Distillation: A Review of Recent Advancements. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 147 (2019) 122-145. doi: 10.1016/j.cherd.2019.04.023

Z. Jiang, T. J. Mathew, H. Zhang, J. Huff, U. Nallasivam, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Global Optimization of Multicomponent Distillation Configurations: Global Minimization of Total Cost for Multicomponent Mixture Separations. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 126 (2019) 249-262. doi: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2019.04.009

R. Tumbalam Gooty, R. Agrawal, M. Tawarmalani. An MINLP Formulation for the Optimization of Multicomponent Distillation Configurations. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 125 (2019) 13-30. doi: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2019.02.013

Z. Jiang, G. M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Process Intensification in Multicomponent Distillation. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 69 (2018) 841-846. doi: 10.3303/CET1869141

R. Tumbalam Gooty, P. Mobed, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. (2018). Optimal Multicomponent Distillation Column Sequencing: Software and Case Studies. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 44 (2018) 223-228. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64241-7.50032-X

G. M. Ramapriya, A. Selvarajah, L. E. Jimenez Cucaita, J. Huff, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Short-Cut Methods versus Rigorous Methods for Performance-Evaluation of Distillation Configurations. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 57-22 (2018) 7726–7731. doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b05214

Z. Jiang, G. M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal. Minimum Energy of Multicomponent Distillation Systems Using Minimum Additional Heat and Mass Integration Sections. AIChE Journal, 64-9 (2018) 3410-3418. doi: 10.1002/aic.16189

G. M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, A Systematic Method to Synthesize all Dividing Wall Columns for n‐Component Separation: Part II. AIChE Journal, 64-2 (2018) 660-672. doi: 10.1002/aic.15963

G. M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, A Systematic Method to Synthesize all Dividing Wall Columns for n‐Component Separation: Part I. AIChE Journal, 64-2 (2018) 649-659. doi: 10.1002/aic.15964

U. Nallasivam, V.H. Shah, A.A. Shenvi, J. Huff, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, Global optimization of multicomponent distillation configurations: 2. Enumeration based global minimization algorithm, AIChE J. 62 (2016) 2071. doi: 10.1002/aic.15204.

G.M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, Thermal coupling links to liquid-only transfer streams: An enumeration method for new FTC dividing wall columns, AIChE J. 62 (2016) 1200. doi: 10.1002/aic.15053.

G. Madenoor Ramapriya, A.A. Shenvi, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, A New Framework for Combining a Condenser and Reboiler in a Configuration to Consolidate Distillation Columns, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 54 (2015) 10449-10464. doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.5b01701.

V.H. Shah, R. Agrawal, Conceptual Design of Zeotropic Distillation Processes, in: A. Gorak, E. Sorensen (Eds.), Distill. Fundam. Princ. Vol. 1, Elsevier, (2014): pp. 271-303. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-386547-2.00007-7

G. Madenoor Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, New, Useful Dividing Wall Columns for Sustainable Distillation, in: Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Distill. Absorpt., Friedrichshafen, Germany, (2014): pp. 76-81.

G.M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, Modified Basic Distillation Configurations with Intermediate Sections for Energy Savings, AIChE J. 60 (2014) 1091. doi: 10.1002/aic.14324.

G.M. Ramapriya, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, Thermal Coupling Links to Liquid-Only Transfer Streams: A Path for New Dividing Wall Columns, AIChE J. 60 (2014) 2949. doi: 10.1002/aic.14468.

U. Nallasivam, V.H. Shah, A.A. Shenvi, M. Tawarmalani, R. Agrawal, Global Optimization of Multicomponent Distillation Configurations: 1. Need for a Reliable Global Optimization Algorithm, AIChE J. 59 (2013) 971. doi: 10.1002/aic.13875.

A.A. Shenvi, V.H. Shah, R. Agrawal, New Multicomponent Distillation Configurations with Simultaneous Heat and Mass Integration, AIChE J. 59 (2013) 272. doi: 10.1002/aic.13971.

A.A. Shenvi, V.H. Shah, J.A. Zeller, R. Agrawal, A Synthesis Method for Multicomponent Distillation Sequences with Fewer Columns, AIChE J. 58 (2012) 2479. doi: 10.1002/aic.12752.

V.H. Shah, R. Agrawal, Are All Thermal Coupling Links between Multicomponent Distillation Columns Useful from an Energy Perspective?, Ind. Eng. Chem. 50-3 (2011) 1770-1777. doi: 10.1021/ie101768c.

A.A. Shenvi, D.M. Herron, R. Agrawal, Energy efficiency limitations of the conventional heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) configuration for binary distillation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50-1 (2011) 119-130. doi: 10.1021/ie101698f.

V.H. Shah, R. Agrawal, A Matrix Method for Multicomponent Distillation Sequences, AIChE J. 56 (2010) 1759. doi: 10.1002/aic.12118.

Giridhar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of distillation configurations: I. Characteristics of a good search space, Comput. Chem. Eng. 34 (2010) 73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2009.05.003.

Giridhar, R. Agrawal, Synthesis of distillation configurations. II: A search formulation for basic configurations, Comput. Chem. Eng. 34 (2010) 84-95. doi: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2009.05.004.

R. Pathare, R. Agrawal, Design of membrane cascades for gas separation, J. Memb. Sci. 364 (2010) 263-277. doi: 10.1016/j.memsci.2010.08.029.

V.H. Shah, R. Agrawal, Multicomponent Distillation Configurations with Large Energy Savings, in: Proc. Distill. Absorpt., (2010).

R.D. Noble, R. Agrawal, Separations research needs for the 21st century, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44 (2005) 2887-2892. doi: 10.1021/ie0501475.

R. Agrawal, Synthesis of multicomponent distillation column configurations, AIChE J. 49 (2003) 379-401. doi: 10.1002/aic.690490210.

R. Agrawal, A.A. Brostow, D.M. Herron, M.J. Robert, Hybrid Cryogenic Liquefaction Processes, in: Proc. 21st Int. Congr. Refrig., Washington DC, (2003): p. ICR03090.

Z.T. Fidkowski, R. Agrawal, Multicomponent thermally coupled systems of distillation columns at minimum reflux, AIChE J. 47 (2001) 2713-2724. doi: 10.1002/aic.690471211.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Feed Pretreatment for Binary Distillation Efficiency Improvement, in: R. Gani, S.B. Jorgensen (Eds.), Eur. Symp. Comput. Aided Process Eng. – 11, Elsevier, (2001): p. 339-344. doi: 10.1016/S1570-7946(01)80052-3.

R. Agrawal, Multicomponent distillation columns with partitions and multiple reboilers and condensers, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40 (2001) 4258-4266. doi: 10.1021/ie000315n.

R. Agrawal, Separations: Perspective of a process developer/designer, AIChE J. 47 (2001) 967-971. doi: 10.1002/aic.690470503.

R. Agrawal, Thermally coupled distillation with reduced number of intercolumn vapor transfers, AIChE J. 46 (2000) 2198-2210. doi: 10.1002/aic.690461112.

R. Agrawal, Multieffect distillation for thermally coupled configurations, AIChE J. 46 (2000) 2211-2224. doi: 10.1002/aic.690461113.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, Improving Efficiency of Distillation with New Thermally Coupled Configurations of Columns, in: Found. Comput. Process Des. AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 323, Vol. 96, (2000): p. 381.

R. Agrawal, A method to draw fully thermally coupled distillation column configurations for multicomponent distillation, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 78 (2000) 454-464. doi: 10.1205/026387699526449.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Air Liquefaction: Distillation, Encycl. Sep. Sci. (2000) 1895.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, More Operable Arrangements of Thermally Coupled Distillation Column, in: M. D. Pritchett, H. Z. Kister (Eds.), Distill. Horizons New Millenn. AIChE Top. Conf. Prepr., (1999): p. 105.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, Thermodynamically efficient systems for ternary distillation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38 (1999) 2065-2074. doi: 10.1021/ie980531k.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Production of Low-Purity Oxygen in the Next Millennium, in: 20th IIR Proc., (1999).

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, New thermally coupled schemes for ternary distillation, AIChE J. 45 (1999) 485-496. doi: 10.1002/aic.690450306.

R. Agrawal, More Operable Fully Thermally Coupled Distillation Column Configurations for Multicomponent Distillation, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 77 (1999) 543-553. doi: 10.1205/026387699526449.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, Ternary distillation schemes with partial reboiler or partial condenser, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37 (1998) 3455-3462. doi: 10.1021/ie980063e.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, Improved direct and indirect systems of columns for ternary distillation, AIChE J. 44 (1998) 823-830. doi: 10.1002/aic.690440407.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, Are thermally coupled distillation columns always thermodynamically more efficient for ternary distillations, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37 (1998) 3444-3454. doi: 10.1021/ie980062m.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, More operable arrangements of fully thermally coupled distillation columns, AIChE J. 44 (1998) 2565-2568. doi: 10.1002/aic.690441124.

R. Agrawal, J. Xu, Advanced Cryogenic Air Separation Plants for Carbonaceous Fuel-Based Ammonia Synthesis, in: Cryog. Refrig. Proc. ICCR-98, Hangzhou, China, (1998): p. 538.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Intermediate Reboiler and Condenser Arrangement for Binary Distillation Columns, AIChE J. 44 (1998) 1316-1324. doi: 10.1002/aic.690440609.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Efficient Use of an Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser in a Binary Distillation, AIChE J. 44 (1998) 1303-1315. doi: 10.1002/aic.690440608.

R. Agrawal, D.M. Herron, Optimal thermodynamic feed conditions for distillation of ideal binary mixtures, AIChE J. 43 (1997) 2984-2996. doi: 10.1002/aic.690431111.

R. Agrawal, H.C. Rowles, G.E. Kinard, Cryogenic Distillation, in: D. M. Ruthven (Ed.), Encycl. Sep. Technol., Wiley, New York, (1997): p. 379.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, A.K. Modi, Co-production of High Purity Products Using Thermally-Linked Columns, Distill. Absorpt. 1997, Inst. Chem. Eng. Symp. Ser. 142 (1997) 511.

R. Agrawal, A simplified method for the synthesis of gas separation membrane cascades with limited numbers of compressors, Chem. Eng. Sci. 52 (1997) 1029-1044. doi: 10.1016/S0009-2509(96)00376-4.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidkowski, J. Xu, Prefractionation to reduce energy consumption in distillation without changing utility temperatures, AIChE J. 42 (1996) 2118-2127. doi: 10.1002/aic.690420804.

R. Agrawal, J.G. Xu, Gas-separation membrane cascades utilizing limited numbers of compressors, AIChE J. 42 (1996) 2141-2154. doi: 10.1002/aic.690420806.

R. Agrawal, Z.T. Fidgowski, On the use of intermediate reboilers in the rectifying and condensers in the stripping section of a distillation column, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35 (1996) 2801-2807. doi: 10.1021/ie9601312.

R. Agrawal, Production of Ultra-high Purity Nitrogen Free of Light Impurities, in: Proc. MUST-96, Munich Meet. Air Sep. Technol., (1996): p. 25.

R. Agrawal, J. Xu, A Systematic Procedure for Drawing Gas Separation Membrane Cascades with Limited Number of Compressors, in: Proc. ICOM-96, 1996 Int. Congr. Membr. Membr. Process., Yokohama, Japan, (1996): p. 288.

R. Agrawal, Synthesis of Distillation Column Configurations for a Multicomponent Separation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35 (1996) 1059-1071. doi: 10.1021/ie950323h.

J. Xu, R. Agrawal, Gas separation membrane cascades I. One-compressor cascades with minimal exergy losses due to mixing, J. Memb. Sci. 112 (1996) 115-128. doi: 10.1016/0376-7388(95)00272-3.

J. Xu, R. Agrawal, Membrane Separation Process Analysis and Design Strategies Based on Thermodynamic Efficiency of Permeation, Chem. Eng. Sci. 51 (1996) 365-385. doi: 10.1016/0009-2509(95)00262-6.

R. Agrawal, Membrane cascade schemes for multicomponent gas separation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35 (1996) 3607-3617. doi: 10.1021/ie960160c.

R. Agrawal, J. Xu, Gas separation membrane cascades II. Two-compressor cascades, J. Memb. Sci. 112 (1996) 129-146. doi: 10.1016/0376-7388(95)00273-1.

J. Xu, R. Agrawal, Local Thermodynamic Efficiency of Permeation and Strategies for Efficiency Improvement for Membrane Gas Separation, in: 1995 Top. Conf. Recent Dev. Futur. Oppor. Sep. Technol. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., (1995): p. 351.

R. Agrawal, Production of Ultrahigh-Purity Oxygen: A Distillation Method for the Coproduction of the Heavy Key Component Stream Free of Heavier Impurities, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 34 (1995) 3947-3955. doi: 10.1021/ie00038a034.

Z. T. Fidkowski, R. Agrawal, Utilization of Waste Heat Stream in Distillation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 34 (1995) 1287-1293. doi: 10.1021/ie00043a033.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, Efficient Process to Produce Tonnage Nitrogen, in: 19th Int. Congr. Refrig., The Hauge, The Netherlands, (1995): p. 1011.

R. Agrawal, J. Xu, Separation devices for gas mixing, AIChE J. 41 (1995) 2585-2602. doi: 10.1002/aic.690411208.

R. Agrawal, T.F. Yee, Heat Pumps for Thermally Linked Distillation Columns: An Exercise for Argon Production from Air, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 33 (1994) 2717-2730. doi: 10.1021/ie00035a023.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, T.F. Yee, Argon production from air distillation: Use of a heat pump in a ternary distillation with a side rectifier, Gas Sep. Purif. 8 (1994) 37-43. doi: 10.1016/0950-4214(94)85006-2.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, K.A. Ludwig, D.L. Bennett, Impact of Low Pressure Drop Structure Packing on Air Distillation, in: Inst. Chem. Eng. Symp. Ser. No. 128, (1992): p. 125.

R. Agrawal, R.M. Thorogood, Production of medium pressure nitrogen by cryogenic air separation, Gas Sep. Purif. 5 (1991) 203-209. doi: 10.1016/0950-4214(91)80025-Z.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, Efficient Cryogenic Nitrogen Generators – An Exergy Analysis, Gas Sep. Purif. 5 (1991) 139-150. doi: 10.1016/0950-4214(91)80012-T.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, Impact of Low Pressure Drop Structured Packing on Argon Production and Purification from Air, in: Proc. XVIIIth Int. Congr. Refrig., Montreal, Canada, (1991): p. 162.

R. Agrawal, W.T. Kleinberg, Efficient Processes to Produce Ultra High Purity Nitrogen from Air, in: Proc. XVIIIth Int. Congr. Refrig., Montreal, Canada, (1991): p. 156.

J.S. Choe, R. Agrawal, S.R. Auvil, Membrane/Adsorption Hybrids for Gas Separation, in: AIChE Symp. Ser., Houston, (1991).

R. Agrawal, S.R. Auvil, J.S. Choe, D.W. Woodward, Membrane/cryogenic hybrid scheme for argon production from air, Gas Sep. Purif. 4 (1990) 75-80. doi: 10.1016/0950-4214(90)80031-F.

J.S. Choe, R. Agrawal, S.R. Auvil, R. Srinivasan, R.M. Thorogood, Membrane/Adsorption Hybrids for Gas Separation, in: Proc. 1990 Int. Congr. Membr. Membr. Process., (1990): p. 995.

R. Agrawal, D.W. Woodward, W.T. Kleinberg, K.B. Wilson, Efficient Processes to Produce Nitrogen by Cryogenic Air Separation, in: Proc. Low Temp. Cryog. Conf., Southampton, U.K., (1990): p. 4.

J.M. Abrardo, R. Agrawal, A.R. Smith, D.W. Woodward, Oxygen Plants for IGCC, in: C. F. Gottzmann, L. C. Kun, K. D. Timmerhaus, L. Wenzel (Eds.), Seventh Intersoc. Cryog. Symp., (1989): p. 37.

R. Agrawal, D.C. Erickson, D.W. Woodward, High Efficiency Processes for Cryogenic Air Separation, in: C. F. Gottzmann, L. C. Kun, K. D. Timmerhaus, L. Wenzel (Eds.), Seventh Intersoc. Cryog. Symp., (1989): p. 33.

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