Terry Meyer

Professor Of Mechanical Engineering

Telephone: N/A
Email: trmeyer@purdue.edu
More about Terry Meyer


Graduate Students

Amanda Braun
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: 2022
Project/Thesis: High-Speed Burst-Mode Laser Diagnostics in Post-Detonation Fireballs

Alex Brown
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: 2022
Co-advisor: Steve Son
Project/Thesis Title: Laser Diagnostics for Species and Temperature in Explosive Fireballs

Diane Collard
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: 2021
Project/Thesis: Additively manufactured reactive components in composite propellant
Co-Advisor: Steve Son

Mateo Gomez-Gomez
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: 2021
Project/Thesis: Advanced diagnostics in detonations and multiphase environments
Co-Advisor: Steve Son

Josh Ludwigsen
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: 2023
Project/Thesis: Application of pulse burst laser diagnostics for measurement of high speed reacting flows
Co-Advisor: Steve Son

Patrick B. Moore
School: Mechanical Engineering
Expected Graduation: May, 2021
Project/Thesis: Thermographic Nanophosphors
Co-Advisor: Steve Son


Recent Publications

Micro-Optical Initiation of Nanoenergetic Materials Using a Temporally Tailored Variable-Pulse-Width Laser

Slipchenko, Mikhail ; Moody, Clint ; Miller, Joseph ; Roy, Sukesh ; Gord, James ; Meyer, Terrence
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine (Transactions of the ASME), Aug 1, 2012, Vol.3(3), pp.1-6


Nanoenergetic materials can provide a significant enhancement in the rate of energy release as compared with microscale materials. The energy-release rate is strongly dependent not only on the primary particle size but also on the level of agglomeration, which is of particular interest for the inclusion of nanoenergetics in practical systems where agglomeration is desired or difficult to avoid. Unlike studies of nanoparticles or nanometer-size aggregates, which can be conducted with ultrafast or nanosecond lasers assuming uniform heating, microscale aggregates of nanoparticles are more sensitive to the thermophysical time scale of the heating process. To allow control over the rate of energy deposition during laser initiation studies, a custom, temporally tailored, continuously variable-pulse-width (VPW) laser was employed for radiative heating of nanoenergetic materials. The laser consisted of a continuous-wave master oscillator, which could be sliced into desired pulses, and a chain of amplifiers to reach high peak power. The slicer allowed control over the time profile of the pulses via the combination of an arbitrary waveform generator and acousto-optic modulator (AOM). The effects of utilizing flat-top or ramped laser pulses with durations from 100 ns to 150 μs and energies up to 20 mJ at 1064 nm were investigated, along with a broad range of heating rates for single particles or nanoparticle aggregates up to 100-μm diameter. In combination with an optical microscope, laser heating of aggregates consisting of 70-nm diameter Al nanoparticles in a Teflon matrix showed significant dependence on the heating profile due to the sensitivity of nanoenergetic materials to heating rate. The ability to control the temporal pulse-intensity profile leads to greater control over the effects of ablative heating and the resulting shockwave propagation. Hence, flexible laser-pulse profiles allow the investigation of energetic properties for a wide size range of metal/metal-oxide nanoparticles, aggregates, and composites.


Spatially and temporally resolved temperature and shock-speed measurements behind a laser-induced blast wave of energetic nanoparticles

Roy, Sukesh ; Jiang, Naibo ; Stauffer, Hans U. ; Schmidt, Jacob B. ; Kulatilaka, Waruna D. ; Meyer, Terrence R. ; Bunker, Christopher E. ; Gord, James R.
Journal of Applied Physics, 14 May 2013, Vol.113(18)


Spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurements behind an expanding blast wave are made using picosecond (ps) N 2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) following laser flash heating of mixtures containing aluminum nanoparticles embedded in ammonium-nitrate oxidant. Production-front ps-CARS temperatures as high as 3600 ± 180 K—obtained for 50-nm-diameter commercially produced aluminum-nanoparticle samples—are observed. Time-resolved shadowgraph images of the evolving blast waves are also obtained to determine the shock-wave position and corresponding velocity. These results are compared with near-field blast-wave theory to extract relative rates of energy release for various particle diameters and passivating-layer compositions.


Simultaneous high-speed planar imaging of mixture fraction and velocity using a burst-mode laser

Miller, Joseph ; Michael, James ; Slipchenko, Mikhail ; Roy, Sukesh ; Meyer, Terrence ; Gord, James
Applied Physics B, October, 2013, Vol.113(1), pp.93-97


Simultaneous high-speed quantitative imaging of mixture fraction and velocity is demonstrated using the fourth- and second-harmonic outputs, respectively, of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser. A tenfold increase in the record length and 16-fold increase in per-pulse energy are achieved compared with previous measurements of mixture fraction using burst-mode and continuously pulsed diode-pumped solid-state lasers, respectively. The high output energy is used for quantitative, high-speed mixture-fraction imaging with acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence, which also enables simultaneous particle-based velocimetry without interference from particle scattering. A semiquantitative model is used to determine the limitations on fourth-harmonic output energy due to the effects of transient absorption and thermal phase mismatch over a range of repetition rates. Data are presented for mixing within a turbulent jet (Reynolds number of 15,000) and are validated by comparisons with known turbulent mixing laws and previously published data.


100-ps-pulse-duration, 100-J burst-mode laser for kHz-MHz flow diagnostics

Roy, Sukesh ; Miller, Joseph D ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Hsu, Paul S ; Mance, Jason G ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Gord, James R
Optics letters, 15 November 2014, Vol.39(22), pp.6462-5


A high-speed, master-oscillator power-amplifier burst-mode laser with ∼100  ps pulse duration is demonstrated with output energy up to 110 J per burst at 1064 nm and second-harmonic conversion efficiency up to 67% in a KD*P crystal. The output energy is distributed across 100 to 10,000 sequential laser pulses, with 10 kHz to 1 MHz repetition rate, respectively, over 10 ms burst duration. The performance of the 100 ps burst-mode laser is evaluated and been found to compare favorably with that of a similar design that employs a conventional ∼8  ns pulse duration. The nearly transform-limited spectral bandwidth of 0.15  cm(-1) at 532 nm is ideal for a wide range of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques, and the 100 picosecond pulse duration is optimal for fiber-coupled spectroscopic measurements in harsh reacting-flow environments.


High-speed, three-dimensional tomographic laser-induced incandescence imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent flames

Meyer, Terrence R ; Halls, Benjamin R ; Jiang, Naibo ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Roy, Sukesh ; Gord, James R
Optics express, 26 December 2016, Vol.24(26), pp.29547-29555


High-speed, laser-based tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional time evolution of soot volume fraction in turbulent jet diffusion flames is demonstrated to be feasible at rates of 10 kHz or higher. The fundamental output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with 1 J/pulse is utilized for volumetric impulsive heating of soot particles with a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm2, enabling signal-to-noise ratios of ~100:1 in images of the resulting incandescence. The three-dimensional morphology of the soot distribution is captured with a spatial resolution of <1.5 mm using as few as four viewing angles, with convergence of the soot volume fraction to within ~95% occurring with seven or more viewing angles. Uniqueness of the solution is demonstrated using two sets of eight images captured at the same time instant, with agreement to >90% in peak values between the two sets. These data establish parameters for successful high-speed, three-dimensional imaging of the soot volume fraction within highly transient combustion environments.


4D spatiotemporal evolution of combustion intermediates in turbulent flames using burst-mode volumetric laser-induced fluorescence

Halls, Benjamin R ; Jiang, Naibo ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Roy, Sukesh ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Gord, James R
Optics letters, 15 July 2017, Vol.42(14), pp.2830-2833


High-speed (20 kHz rate), volumetric laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of combustion intermediates such as a formaldehyde (CH2O) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species is demonstrated for tracking the four-dimensional (4D) evolution of turbulent flames. The third-harmonic, 355 nm output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with a 130 mJ/pulse is expanded to 30 mm diameter for volume illumination of the base region of a methane–hydrogen jet diffusion flame. Eight simultaneous images from different viewing angles are used to collect the resulting fluorescence signal for reconstruction of 200 time-sequential three-dimensional volumes over 10 ms duration. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 300:1 is achieved after reconstruction with a temporal resolution of 100 ns and spatial resolution of 0.85–1.5 mm.


Burst-mode OH/CHO planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the heat release zone in an unsteady flame

Retzer, Ulrich ; Pan, Rongchao ; Werblinski, Thomas ; Huber, Franz J T ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Zigan, Lars ; Will, Stefan
Optics express, 09 July 2018, Vol.26(14), pp.18105-18114


The paper presents simultaneous high-speed (7.5 kHz) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde (CH2O) and the hydroxyl-radical (OH) for visualization of the flame structure and heat release zone in a non-premixed unsteady CH4/O2/N2 flame. For this purpose, a dye laser designed for high-speed operation is pumped by the second-harmonic 532 nm output of a Nd:YAG burst-mode laser to produce a tunable, 566 nm beam. After frequency doubling a high-energy kHz-rate narrowband pulse train of approximately 2.2 mJ/pulse at 283 nm is used for excitation of the OH radical. Simultaneously, CH2O is excited by the frequency-tripled output of the same Nd:YAG laser, providing a high-frequency pulse train over 10 ms in duration at high pulse energies (>100 mJ/pulse). The excitation energies enable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of ~10 and ~60 for CH2O and OH PLIF, respectively, using a single high-speed intensified CMOS camera equipped with an image doubler. This allows sufficient SNR for investigation of the temporal evolution of the primary heat release zone and the local flame structure at kHz rates from the spatial overlap of the OH- and CH2O-PLIF signals.


Quantitative femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of atomic oxygen in high-pressure flames

Rahman, K Arafat ; Athmanathan, Venkat ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Roy, Sukesh ; Gord, James R ; Zhang, Zhili ; Meyer, Terrence R
Applied optics, 10 March 2019, Vol.58(8), pp.1984-1990


Quantitative femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of atomic oxygen was demonstrated in an H2/air flame at pressures up to 10 atm. Femtosecond excitation at 226.1 nm was used to pump the 3𝑝𝑃3𝐽′=0,1,2←←2𝑝𝑃3𝐽′′=0,1,2 electronic transition of atomic oxygen. Contributions from multiphoton de-excitation, production of atomic oxygen, and photolytic interferences were investigated and minimized by limiting the laser irradiance to ∼1011  W/cm2. Quantitative agreement was achieved with the theoretical equilibrium mole fraction of atomic oxygen over a wide range of fuel–air ratios and pressures in an H2/air laminar calibration burner.


Lifetime-filtered laser-induced exciplex fluorescence for crosstalk-free liquid-vapor imaging

Douglawi, Alber ; Athmanathan, Venkat ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Gord, James R ; Meyer, Terrence R
Optics letters, 15 March 2019, Vol.44(6), pp.1399-1402


Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence is a well-established technique for liquid-vapor imaging in evaporating sprays that offers phase-dependent spectrally separated emission. However, the accuracy of this approach is limited by substantial crosstalk from the liquid to vapor phase signals. This Letter shows the use of a combination of spectral and temporal filtering to reduce this crosstalk by three orders of magnitude and eliminate the need for temperature-dependent crosstalk corrections in the N,N-diethylmethylamine/fluorobenzene system. The relative decay rates of the liquid and vapor signals are quantified and show crosstalk-free imaging for monodisperse evaporating droplets over a wide range of exciplex tracer concentrations.


Tracer-free liquid-vapor imaging using lifetime-filtered planar laser-induced fluorescence

Douglawi, Alber ; Mcmaster, Anthony ; Paciaroni, Megan E ; Michael, James B ; Halls, Benjamin R ; Gord, James R ; Meyer, Terrence R
Optics letters, 15 April 2019, Vol.44(8), pp.2101-2104


The separation of liquid phase and vapor phase laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals using tracer species suffers from uncertainties in tracer-fuel coevaporation, as well as a disparity in liquid and vapor signals. This work demonstrates the use of a simple technique, referred to as lifetime-filtered LIF, to help separate the liquid and vapor signals of fuel sprays in oxygen-free environments without the use of added tracers. This is demonstrated for a common aviation fuel, Jet-A, using prompt detection of the liquid phase and time-delayed detection of the vapor phase. A scaled liquid signal subtraction algorithm is also demonstrated for removing vapor phase signal contamination caused by the largest droplets.


Dynamic imaging of the temperature field within an energetic composite using phosphor thermography

Casey, Alex D ; Roberts, Zane A ; Satija, Aman ; Lucht, Robert P ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Son, Steven F
Applied optics, 01 June 2019, Vol.58(16), pp.4320-4325


An improved understanding of energy localization (“hot spots”) is needed to improve the safety and performance of explosives. We propose a technique to visualize and quantify the properties of a dynamic hot spot from within an energetic composite subjected to ultrasonic mechanical excitation. The composite is composed of an optically transparent binder and a countable number of octahydro 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals. The evolving temperature field is measured by observing the luminescence from embedded phosphor particles and subsequent application of the intensity ratio method. The spatial temperature precision is less than 2% of the measured absolute temperature in the temperature regime of interest (23°C–220°C). The temperature field is mapped from within an HMX–binder composite under periodic mechanical excitation.


Pressure-scaling characteristics of femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of carbon monoxide

Rahman, K Arafat ; Athmanathan, Venkat ; Slipchenko, Mikhail N ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Roy, Sukesh
Applied optics, 20 September 2019, Vol.58(27), pp.7458-7465


Broadband femtosecond (fs) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TP-LIF) of the 𝐵1Σ+←𝑋1Σ+, Hopfield–Birge system of carbon monoxide (CO) is believed to have two major advantages compared to narrowband nanosecond excitation. It should (i) minimize the effects of pressure-dependent absorption line broadening and shifting, and (ii) produce pressure-independent TP-LIF signals as the effect of increased quenching due to molecular collisions is offset by the increase in number density. However, there is an observed nonlinear drop in the CO TP-LIF signal with increasing pressure. In this work, we systematically investigate the relative impact of potential deexcitation mechanisms, including collisional quenching, forward lasing, attenuation of the source laser by the test cell windows or by the gas media, and a 2+1 photoionization process. As expected, line broadening and collisional quenching play minor roles in the pressure-scaling behavior, but the CO fs TP-LIF signals deviate from theory primarily because of two major reasons. First, attenuation of the excitation laser at high pressures significantly reduces the laser irradiance available at the probe volume. Second, a 2+1 photoionization process becomes significant as the number density increases with pressure and acts as a major deexcitation pathway. This work summarizes the phenomena and strategies that need to be considered for performing CO fs TP-LIF at high pressures.


Vi]sualization of physicochemical phenomena during biomass pyrolysis in an optically accessible reactor

Tiarks, Jordan A ; Dedic, Chloe E ; Meyer, Terrence R ; Brown, Robert C ; Michael, James B
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, October 2019, Vol.143


The thermochemical conversion of biomass via fast pyrolysis requires detailed descriptions of both the kinetic and heat and mass transport rates, which are often in direct competition. To investigate the evolution of products, whole biomass and biomass constituents (e.g. cellulose and lignin) are pyrolyzed in a novel optically accessible reactor. This enables real-time, in situ observation of the temporal evolution of light-oxygenates, volatile sugars, and phenolic compounds during melting, agglomeration, ejection, and volatilization of biomass under realistic heating rates (∼100 K/s). Both cellulose and lignin underwent liquefaction, but liquid coalescence in lignin limits vapor transport. This is overcome by dispersing extracted lignin in an inert matrix, and confirms the predominant mass transport of pyrolysis products from whole biomass, cellulose, and lignin occurs via devolatilization. These results differ from prior work on single-particle pyrolysis and reveal thermochemical mechanisms that are relevant for typical large-scale pyrolysis processes with transport limitations.


Burst-mode femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for kHz–MHz seedless velocimetry

Fisher, Jordan ; Smyser, Michael ; Slipchenko, Mikhail ; Roy, Sukesh ; Meyer, Terrence
Optics Letters, Jan 15, 2020, Vol.45(2), p.335


Burst-mode femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) of nitrogen is introduced for tracking the velocity field in high-speed flows at kilohertz–megahertz (kHz–MHz) repetition rates without the use of added tracers. A custom-built Nd:glass femtosecond laser is used to produce 500 pulses per burst with pulses having a temporal separation as short as 1 µs, an energy of 120 µJ, and a duration of 274 fs. This enables 2 orders of magnitude higher measurement bandwidth over conventional kHz-rate FLEET velocimetry. Characteristics of the optical system are described, along with a demonstration of time-resolved velocity measurements with ∼0.5% precision in a supersonic slot jet.


Flexible chirp-free probe pulse amplification for kHz fs/ps rotational CARS

Rahman, K ; Braun, Erik ; Slipchenko, Mikhail ; Roy, Sukesh ; Meyer, Terrence
Optics Letters, Jan 15, 2020, Vol.45(2), p.503


The sensitivity of high-repetition-rate hybrid femtosecond/picosecond (fs/ps) rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RCARS) is strongly influenced by the energy available for the ps probe pulse. In this work, a high-energy ps probe pulse that is time-synchronized with the fs pump/Stokes pulse is achieved by using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier seeded at 1064.4 nm by the output of a fs optical parametric amplifier. Nearly transform-limited, 10 ps pulses with up to 800 µJ/pulse and a bandwidth of 1.9cm−1 were generated at the second harmonic 532.2 nm and used for kilohertz-rate fs/ps RCARS thermometry up to 2400 K with accuracies of 1–2%. We furthermore demonstrate the amplification of variable pulsewidths for flexible single-mode (chirp-free) RCARS signal generation.