BD Huey, R Nath, RE Garcia, JE Blendell “Challenges and results for quantitative piezoelectric hysteresis measurements by piezo force microscopy.” Microscopy and Microanalysis. 11:6, 2005.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has become a ubiquitous tool for analyzing the topography of a wide variety of materials, especially as nanoscale features become more significant for both understanding as well as determining materials properties . Many AFM variations have also been developed for measuring surface properties beyond straightforward cartography. In many of these cases, the contrast mechanisms are often either extremely complex, or not well understood, even though the principles are simple. For example, Piezo-Force Microscopy (PFM) is relatively easy to understand and use in a standard lab for measuring electromechanical properties of materials, but care must be taken in order to obtain quantitative results as described below.