R Nath, RE García, JE Blendell, BD Huey “The influence of grain boundaries and texture on ferroelectric domain hysteresis.” JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 59(1):17-21, 2007.
As ferroelectric device dimensions continue to shrink, the increasing ratio of boundary to bulk necessitates a thorough understanding of interfacial properties. Accordingly, the local piezoelectric hysteresis of a polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin film is quantitatively measured and compared to the separately measured grain orientation and the corresponding predicted residual stress and charge. The piezoelectric response is determined using a variation of atomic-force microscopy known as piezo-force microscopy, with which nearly 20 hysteresis measurements were acquired spanning four grain boundaries and five grains. The grain orientation in this region was determined by scanning-electron microscope using electron-backscattered diffraction.