Purdue’s Center for Particulate Products and Processes (CP3) seeks to address the lack of knowledge related to particulate materials. Our vision is to create new functionality, improve quality, and reduce the costs of particulate-based products. Specifically, our mission is to provide the knowledge, tools, and trained workforce needed to effectively design and manufacture particulate products. The faculty and students in the CP3 are involved in research, consulting, testing, and coursework focused on a range of topics and applications related to particulate materials. We have extensive experience working with pharmaceuticals, agricultural, and energetic materials (with our sister team, the Purdue Energetics Research Center) as well as consumer products, catalysts, food products, and batteries.
Why are particulate products and processes important?
A particulate material is a collection of discrete, solid particles dispersed in a vacuum or interstitial fluid. These materials are all around us. A few examples include food products such as rice, corn, and breakfast cereal flakes, building materials such as sand, gravel, and soil, chemicals such as plastics pellets, catalysts, and pharmaceutical powders, and consumer products such as powdered laundry detergents, batteries, and cosmetics.
As might be expected from their ubiquity, particulate materials contribute significantly to the economy. Approximately one-half of the products and at least three-quarters of the raw materials in the chemical industry are in granular form (Nedderman, 1992). Indeed, particle technology contributes an estimated $61 billion to the industry (Ennis et al., 1994). The pharmaceutical industry relies extensively on particulate materials, with approximately 90% of drug products consisting of solid dosage forms (pharmapproach.com, 2018), meaning that they are produced from particulate materials.
Clearly, even small increases in efficiency when processing particulate materials could make a significant economic impact. Unfortunately there remains a poor understanding of how to model these materials. Most applied particulate handling knowledge is empirical and few students, at least in the U.S., have exposure to coursework focused on particulate materials. A recent study of 40 solids processing plants in the U.S. and Canada found that 80% of the facilities experienced solids handling problems and most of the plants were slow coming on-line. Once operational, handling problems continued, resulting in performance of only 40% to 50% that of design. In contrast, those facilities handling liquids and gases typically operated at about 90% of design (Merrow, 1985). There are many other examples of where improved knowledge of particulate materials could have an impact. For example:
- Between 1980 and 2005 there were approximately 3,500 dust explosions in the U.S. resulting in 119 deaths and 718 injuries. The Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that 2.3 million employees are regularly exposed to crystalline silica. These workers are at risk for diseases such as silicosis, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Approximately 1.3% of the U.S. electrical power production goes toward grinding particles or ores (Ennis et al., 1994).
- Each year more than 1,000 silos, bins, and hoppers fail in North America (Knowlton et al., 1994).
- In 2014, the world produced nearly 100 million metric tons of urea in particulate form, which is widely used in agricultural fertilizers (factfish, 2014).
- In North America and the Oceania region, approximately 500 million metric tons of cereal grains, which are in granular form, are lost during distribution, processing, and other stages of handling (FAO, 2011).
- Approximately 50% of the world’s energy resources are derived from granular systems such as soils, grains, and biomass (Blumenfeld et al., 2015).
- Approximately 30% of pharmaceutical materials are lost due to powder segregation, which is the unintentional separation of powder components (Pharmaceutical Online, 2018).
- Blumenfeld, R., Edwards, S.F., and Walley, S.M., 2015, “Physics of granular systems”, In: The Oxford Handbook of Soft Condensed Matter (Eds.: Terentjev, E.M. and Weits, D. A.), Oxford University Press.
- Ennis, B.J., Green, J., and Davies, R., 1994, “The legacy of neglect in the U.S.,” Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 32-43.
- factfish, 23 Jul 2018, http://www.factfish.com/statistic/urea%2C%20production
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2011, “Global Food Losses and Food Waste”, http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e00.pdf
- Hernandez-Cordero, J., Zenit, R., Geffroy, E., Mena, B., and Huilgo, R.R., 2000, “Experiments on granular flow in a hexagonal silo: A design that minimizes dynamic stresses,” Korea-Australia Rheology Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 55-67.
- Knowlton, T.M., Carson, J.W., Klinzing, G.E., and Yang, W-C., 1994, “The importance of storage, transfer, and collection,” Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 44-54.
- Merrow, E.W., 1985, “Linking R&D; to problems experienced in solids processing”, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 81, pp. 14 - 22.
- Nedderman, R.M., 1992, Statics and Kinematics of Granular Materials, Cambridge University Press.
- Pharmaceutical Online, 17 Apr 2018, https://www.pharmaceuticalonline.com/doc/understanding-and-solving-segregation-effects-in-pharmaceutical-solid-dosage-form-operations-0001
- pharmapproach.com, 23 Jul 2018, https://www.pharmapproach.com/understanding-pharmaceutical-dosage-forms
Ph.D. student Shankali Pradhan and Prof. Carl Wassgren use a twin screw granulator to continuously produce a granules from pharmaceutical powders.
Ph.D. student Shrikant Swaminathan inserts a punch for producing a rectangular powder compact for measuring pharmaceutical powder properties.
Students and faculty from Purdue work with Natoli Engineering to install the new NP-400 tablet press.
Yu Liu, a mechanical engineering doctoral student working with Carl Wassgren and Marcial Gonzalez, works on computer simulation of biomass particle movement through a screw conveyor. His research will contribute to solving biorefinery blockage issues as part of a $1.8 million Department of Energy grant to Purdue.
Purdue University’s Particle, Powder, and Compact Characterization Laboratory
Purdue University has a dedicated 2000 ft2 facility located in POTR 205/277 for Particle, Powder, and Compact characterization. A description of the laboratory’s equipment is given below. In addition to these facilities, researchers have access to additional research equipment across campus, including numerous optical and scanning electron microscopes, atomic force microscopy, nanoindentation, x-ray computed microtomography, BET gas adsorption, differential scanning calorimetry, NIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Raman spectroscopy, and other devices.
Retsch PT100 sample divider
This device divides a sample so that the composition of each fraction of the sample corresponds to that of the original bulk sample. The material feed and dividing processes take place automatically.
Humboldt H-3985 sample splitter
Material poured into the splitter’s hopper is divided into two equal portions by a series of chutes that discharge the material alternately in opposite directions into separate pans. Chutes: (12), 0.75" (19mm) width; Hopper: 8.5" width x 14" length (171 X 356mm).
Gilson SP-1 sample splitter
A large-capacity sample splitter for materials with particle sizes up to 4 in. (102 mm). The device has a hopper capacity of 1 ft3 (28.3 l) and has 48 chutes, each with a width of 0.5 in. (13 mm). The sample splitter dimensions are WxDxH 29x19x39 in. (737x483x990 mm).
Malvern Mastersizer 3000 particle size analyzer
This analyzer uses Mie light scattering theory to measure the size distributions of particle populations. It is the state-of-the-art equipment for size measurement and has a broad measuring range from 10nm to 3500 µm. The Characterization Laboratory has two wet dispersion units: Hydro MV (100mL dispersant/run) can measure up to 1400µm, whereas Hydro SV (6 ml / run) is used for smaller quantities of dispersant and can measure up to size of 200 µm. In addition, the equipment also has a solvent-free air dispersion unit Aero S, which can measure up to 3500 µm. The equipment comes with real time size monitoring capability, allowing the study of agglomeration, dissolution etc.
Malvern Morphologi G3-ID
The Morphologi G3-ID utilizes automated static imaging features to measure the size and shape distribution of particles. It also offers a unique capability of chemical identification of individual particles using Morphologically-Directed Raman Spectroscopy. The measuring range, for both dry and wet dispersion, is 1 µm to 1000 µm. The particle size parameters that can be measured are circle equivalent (CE) diameter, length, width, perimeter, area, maximum distance, sphere equivalent (SE) volume, fiber total length, and fiber width; and the particle shape parameters that can be measured are aspect ratio, circularity, convexity, elongation, high sensitivity (HS) circularity, solidity fiber elongation, and fiber straightness.
Tyler Ro-tap Model E sieve shaker ASTM E-11 sieves
This sieve shaker holds up to six full-height or 13 half-height 8 in. diameter sieves, including a top cover and receiving pan. The shaker is actuated by a built-in, 99-minute digital timer with 0.1 second accuracy. The laboratory sieves can measure particle size distributions from 45 µm to 8 mm.
Nikon SMZ1500 microscope & Nikon Optiphot-2 microscope
Innopharmlabs Eyecon in-line/at-line image analysis system
This portable instrument uses real-time, direct imaging of particles to measure particle size distributions and 2D particle shape information for particle streams traveling at up to 10 m/s. Particle sizes between 50 and 3000 μm can be measured.
Skyscan X-ray MicroCT
Compact and powerful X-ray CT system with maximum resolution of 0.35 µm, to study microstructure of materials in a non-destructive manner. Can hold sample as large as 70 mm diameter x 75 mm height. Powerful software can reconstruct 2D images of internal microstructure in less than an hour, as well as calculate sample porosity. Movies to visualize internal 3D structure can also be created.
Krüss K100MKII goniometer
This device measures the surface tension and the interfacial tension of liquids using the Wilhelmy plate method in a range from 1 to 1000 μN/m. Contact angles on solids of uniform geometry are measured using the dynamic Wilhelmy method. The dynamic contact angle and the adsorption behavior on powders and other porous materials are determined via the Washburn method. The instrument has a built-in ionizer, which eliminates electrostatic charges and increases the measuring accuracy. The surface energy on solids, powder, and fibers can also be measured with this device.
Photron FASTCAM-X 1024 PCI 100K high-speed video camera
This monochrome high-speed camera system is a full-size PCI camera with 4 GB of onboard memory. The equipment is capable of recording from 60 to 109500 frames per second and captures 1000 frames per second at a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels for up to 3.2 seconds. It is capable of an electronic shutter speeds down to 1.5 μs. The camera system also includes 25mm, 50 mm, and 100 mm lenses, lighting, and several tripods.
NovaStrobe DA115 strobe lamp
This device can be used for optical frequency estimation using 30 to 20000 flashes per minute in 0.1 fpm increments.
Carver Press Auto Series 3888
The equipment has a minimum and maximum clamp force of 700 lbf and 30000 lbf, respectively. It can be used to produce powder compacts of various solid fractions.
Micromeritics AccuPyc II 1340 pycnometer
This device measures the apparent volume and density of solids and powders using helium as the working gas. Sample capacities of 1, 10, 100, and 350 cm3 are available. Using multivolume kits, measurements can be performed for materials having volumes as small as 0.01 cm3. The Characterization Laboratory has a 10 cm3 sample cup and a multivolume kit enabling smaller sample sizes (1 and 3.5 cm3).
Micromeritics GeoPyc 1360 envelope and T.A.P. density analyzer
This device measures the envelope density of granules and compacts (even porous objects of irregular size and shape) using the displacement of a fine, free flowing powder. The Characterization Laboratory has all available sample chambers ranging from 1.27 to 5.08 cm inner diameter. The analyzer can also measure the Transverse Axial Pressure (T.A.P) density of powders and other solids.
Agilent Technologies 350 tapped bulk density tester
This tester provides a standardized, reproducible method for measuring the tapped or bulk density of powdered, granulated, or flaked materials. Two 100 ml funnel-top cylinders hold the samples to be tested.
Freeman FT-4 rheometer
This device measures a powder’s basic flowability energy, a measure of the powder’s flow properties. The FT4 also includes a shear cell for measuring the powder’s shear strength, and a wall friction kit to quantify how the powder shears against a boundary. Accessories for measuring other bulk properties, such as bulk density, compressibility, and permeability are also available.
Schulze RTS-XS ring shear tester
This ring shear tester measures a powder’s flow properties such as internal friction angle, effective friction angle, flow function, cohesion, and compressibility using small volumes of material (9 – 70 ml). The effects of time consolidation can also be measured, as well as wall friction measurements. The testing procedure is computer-controlled to eliminate bias due to operator’s handling.
Anton Paar MCR 502 Powder/Liquid Rheometer
This rheometer has a unique capability to analyze the flow properties of both powders and liquids. For liquid and gel samples analysis, the rheometer is equipped with Parallel plate and cup geometries. For powder samples analysis, there is a state of the art powder cell that measures powder flow properties under stationary or fluidized conditions.
PerkinElmer Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA)
The TGA measures the change in mass of a particulate sample as a function of temperature. The heating range of this instrument is from ambient to 1000 ºC. This instrument can be used to study the thermal behavior as it relates to product formulation and stability. This can also be used to quantify the mineral composition and moisture content of particulate materials.
Mettler Toledo HG63 moisture analyzer
A sample is weighed and heated with an infrared radiator (halogen lamp). The loss in weight is continuously recorded and drying ends once a defined criterion is reached.
Binder FED115 drying oven
Used for drying and sterilization applications up to 300 °C (572 °F) and storage at precisely controlled elevated temperatures. The internal volume is 4.1 ft3.
Instron ElectroPuls E1000 mechanical testing frame
This testing frame is used to measure the mechanical properties of wet granules and compacts. It is capable of performing static testing up to 710 N and dynamic testing up to 1000 N. The Characterization Laboratory has 250 N and 2000 N load cells, which are calibrated to measure loads down to 1 N and 20 N, respectively with an accuracy of ±0.5%. The calibrated maximum test stroke of the equipment is 50 mm (max. test stroke is 60 mm). The minimum and maximum speeds are 0.05 mm/min and 1700 mm/sec, respectively.
Mechanical Testing Systems (MTS) Model C43.504 testing frame
This testing frame is used to make powder compacts and measure the mechanical properties of powder compacts. It is capable of performing static testing up to 50 kN. The Characterization Laboratory has load cells ranging from 5N to 50 kN, which are calibrated to measure loads down to 0.15 N with an accuracy of ±0.5%. The calibrated maximum test stroke of the equipment is 1100 mm (max. test stroke is 60 mm). The minimum and maximum speeds are 0.005 mm/min and 750 mm/min, respectively.
Drucker-Prager Cap powder parameter and powder-surface adhesion instrumented punch-die set
This instrumented punch and die system is used to measure powder Drucker-Prager Cap constitutive model parameters and powder-die wall friction coefficients. The measurement system consists of a die with capacitive radial stress sensor, load cell to measure punch force, and displacement transducer to measure punch displacement. The output of the sensors enables simultaneous measurement of the powder density, die-wall friction, and the stress state of the powder. The variation in the material constitutive parameters is less than 10% depending on the material and applied stress. A novel punch design also allows us to measure powder adhesion against various surfaces as a function of compression force.
Our Lab Manager is available to help with your material characterization measurements -
Purdue University’s Continuous Solids Processing Pilot Plant
The Continuous Solids Processing Pilot Plant is a state-of-the-art high-bay facility with options for producing dry and wet granulated products. The line includes several Schenk Accurate continuous feeders, two Gerike continuous blenders, an Alexanderwerks roll compactor and mill, and RIVA and Natoli tablet presses. A Thermofisher continuous wet granulation/hot melt extrusion device is also available for inclusion into the continuous manufacturing line. Instrumentation for monitoring and controlling the process is also integrated into the facility (CDI-Solvias NIR spectrometers and probes, Sartorius microwaves sensor, CAMO ProcessPulse and Unscrambler signal acquisition and post-processing software, Emerson DeltaV control software). A dust collection system and dust isolation booths are present in order to minimize health and safety hazards. A laboratory manager is available for operator training, materials testing services, and research measurements.
This is a 16-station rotary press. It can be fit with B-tooling punches and dies. It can produce tablets in the range of 160/min to 1600/min. It is fit with sensors to measure compartment temperature, humidity and tablet surface temperature using a laser IR sensor. It also houses a take-off sensor which measures the adhesion between the tablet and lower punch.
This is an at-line tablet characterization instrument which can measure weight, thickness, diameter and hardness (breaking force) of tablets automatically. It has a tablet chute which can be used at the exit of any tablet press to divert tablets pneumatically for testing. AT4 can automatically move the tablets through vibration or the movement of a rake to test for each of the above mentioned properties sequentially. It can measure both round and oblong shaped tablets seamlessly.
Bin blender for batch mixing of API and excipients. Capacity of 5 L and 2-20 rpm speed.
A large-capacity sample splitter for materials with particle sizes up to 4 in. (102 mm). The device has a hopper capacity of 1 ft3 (28.3 l) and has 48 chutes, each with a width of 0.5 in. (13 mm). The sample splitter dimensions are WxDxH 29x19x39 in. (737x483x990 mm).
Feed rates from 0.5 to 150 kg/hr. Made with 316L stainless steel and 32 microinch RA interior finishes provide smooth wipe down friendly surfaces. Low cost disposable flexible feed hoppers made from FDA-compliant EPDM also simplify the cleaning process and eliminate cross contamination concerns.
The GCM mixer is designed as a continuous mixer with modular components. The residence time and the energy input can be varied. The output range for these mixers varies from 10 to 250 L/h.
Roller compactor transforms cohesive powders into compacts that can be converted into granules upon milling. The WP-120V can work with as little as 5g and up to a maximum of 40kg/hour capacity. It can operate at maximal gap of 4 mm, maximum roll speed of 15 rpm and exert pressure force of 20 kN/cm. Available rolls are 120 mm in diameter and 25/40 mm in width.
This is a new addition to the pilot plant housing a 22-station turret with larger D-tooling punches and dies. It is a production level tablet press packing servos for the thickness control at both pre and main compression stages. It has an overload system rated at 90 kN.
This portable instrument uses real-time, direct imaging of particles to measure particle size distributions and 2D particle shape information for particle streams traveling at up to 10 m/s. Particle sizes between 50 and 3000 m can be measured.
Widely used Distributed Control System (DCS) in pharmaceutical industry
The Diosna laboratory mixer is flexible laboratory/pilot scale high shear granulator. The machines can be equipped with 10, 25 and 60 liter high shear granulator bowls. Equipment has PLC with operating terminal.
Twin screw melt extruder used for granulation research. Maximum output of 10 kg/hour can be achieved. The equipment operates up to 1000 pm screw speed and 400 C temperature. The extruder barrel is 16 mm in diameter with a L/D ratio of 40. Currently used for food and pharmaceutical research.
Tumble mixer with 1 L, 2L and V-blender shells.
Single screw volumetric feeder to handle free flowing materials such as pellets, glass beads and powders. 0.06 L/ hr to 184 L/hr capacity. Screw speed can be varied up to 1000 rpm.
The formulation is prepared by blending the API with all excipients in the continuous mixers. From the blender, the formulation enters the X-Ray system for mass flow rate measurement. It is then conveyed into the tablet press hopper using a Z-incline conveyor.
R.P. Kingsly Ambrose - Associate Professor
Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Stephen Beaudoin - Professor of Chemical Engineering
Academic Director, Teaching and Learning Technology
Research interests: particle and thin film adhesion
Agricultural & Biological Engineering Faculty
Research interests: surface material science, including: investigation into surface energy, particle interactions, and functionality for dry powders; surface and interface of mobile phases, mechanical assessment of materials.
Srinivasan Chandrasekar - Professor
Department of Materials Engineering
Research interests: manufacturing, materials processing, microsytems technology, nanostructured materials.
Weinong Chen - Aeronautics and Astronautics Associate Head for Graduate Education
Reilly Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics & Materials Engineering
Ivan C. Christov - Assistant Professor
R. Edwin García - Professor
Marcial Gonzalez - Assistant Professor
Michael Harris - Associate Dean of Engineering for Undergraduate Education
Robert B. and Virginia V. Covalt Professor of Chemical Engineering
Research interests: electrodispersion processes, dynamics of nanophase formation, impaction and drying of hydrosol and organosol drops on smooth and porous substrates, environmental control technology, materials synthesis using biotemplates.
Klein Ileleji - Professor
Agricultural & Biological Engineering
Research interests: biomass feedstock logistics, processing, particulate flows and handling, biofeedstock engineering systems for food, feed, fuel, and fiber production.
Tonglei Li - Associate Dean of Graduate Programs
Allen Chao Chair and Professor of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy
Research interests: solid-state organic chemistry, computational chemistry, formulation, drug delivery.
Amy Marconnet - Assistant Professor
Aaron Morris - Assistant Professor
Zoltan Nagy - Professor
Research interests: crystallization systems engineering, control for intelligent manufacturing systems of particulate, process analytical technologies and composite sensor arrays.
Martin Okos - Professor
Agricultural and Biological Engineering/Biochem and Food Processing Engineering
Research interests: food and bioprocess engineering, rheological, heat and mass transfer properties, dehydration shrinkage and swelling, compaction of viscoelastic materials, computer-aided process design.
Dhananjay Pai - Laboratory Manager
Rodolfo Pinal - Director, Dane O. Kildsig Center for Pharmaceutical Processing Research
Associate Professor of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy
Research interests: drug solubility and solubilzation, strategies for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, prefabricated film-based dosage forms, and polymer based composites.
Gintaras Reklaitis - Burton and Kathryn Gedge Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering
Deputy Director, NSF ERC on Structured Organic Composites
Research interests: application of computing, information, and systems technology for supporting complex decisions in the design and operation of processing systems, enterprise-wide optimization.
Fernanda San Martin-Gonzalez - Associate Professor
Department of Food Sciences
Steven Son - Professor
130 Chaffee Hall, Zucrow
Research interests: multiphase combustion, particularly related to propellants, explosive, and pyrotechnics, nanoscale composite energetic materials, advanced energetic materials, microscale combustion.
Kevin Trumble - Professor
ARMS Room 2333
Research interests: microstructure development in materials processing, metal-ceramic interfaces and composites.
Lynne S. Taylor - Professor
Research interests: phase transformations, physical and chemical stability, water-solid interactions, amorphous systems, solid dispersions.
Arvind Varma - Professor
Research interests: hydrogen for fuel cells, underground coal gasification, carbon sequestration, combustion synthesis, chemical and catalytic reaction engineering, trickle-bed reactors.
Carl Wassgren - Professor
Mechanical Engineering/Industrial and Physical Pharmacy
Research interests: dynamics and characterization of particulate materials applied to feeding, blending, granulation, tableting, and coating.
Janelle P. Wharry - Assistant Professor
Yoon Yeo - Associate Department Head
Industrial and Physical Pharmacy
Qi (Tony) Zhou - Assistant Professor
Industrial and Physical Pharmacy
Chemical Engineering Professional MastersParticulate Products and Processes and Pharmaceutical Engineering Programs
Chemical Engineering Bachelors DegreeConcentration in Pharmaceutical Engineering
Biological and Food Processing Unit Operations (ABE 55500)
Analysis and design of operations, such as sterilization, freezing, dehydration, fermentation, and separation processes. Integration of pilot plant results into the design and scale-up process systems. Emphasis on how the properties of biological materials influence the quality of the processed product.
Physical Properties of Biomaterials (ABE 305)
Course topics include physical attributes (size, density, porosity, etc.), statistical distribution of attributes; moisture measurement techniques, equilibrium moisture, moisture relationships; composition and microscopic structure related to texture, density, thermal properties and other attributes; water activity, chemical potential and water potential; coefficient of friction, angle of repose, internal angle of friction, flow patterns, flow through orifices, Rankine and Janssen equations; aerodynamic properties; thermal properties and freezing of foods and biological materials; electromagnetic properties; and force-deformation properties.
Particulate Systems (CHE 53600)
A broad overview of the fundamental concepts in particulate systems including particle characterization, particle size measurement, sedimentation, fluidization, gas and liquid conveying, particle storage, fluid-particle separation, particle size enlargement and reduction, particle mixing and hazards associated with the handling of particulate solids. Practical applications are emphasized, with a focus on how particles behave differently than fluids.
Design and Processing of Particulate Products (CHE 53800)
Characterization of particulate systems, use of population balances to describe processes that make or transform particles, applications in important unit processes including crystallization, granulation, milling, aerosol processes.
Principles of Pharmaceutical Engineering (CHE 55100)
This course is designed to provide engineering, science and pharmacy students with an understanding of the structure, economic and regulatory context, product discovery and development pipeline dynamics, intellectual property considerations and common manufacturing technology of the global pharmaceutical industry.
Pharmaceutical Process, Development, and Design (CHE 55300)
This course introduces the engineering methodologies involved in translating a laboratory recipe for a drug compound produced via synthetic organic chemistry methods to an industrial process. The basic features of common unit operations used in the pharmaceutical industry will be reviewed, including batch reaction, solid-liquid separation, crystallization, drying, mixing, batch distillation and other separation systems. Both dedicated and multi-product production system design and batch and semi-continuous operating modes will be covered.
Colloidal and Interfacial Phenomena (CHE 66800)
Preparation, characterization, and stability of emulsions, aerosols, and other multiphase dispersions. Interparticle forces, electrokinetics, thermodynamics and kinetics of coagulation. Techniques for determining size, shape, orientation, and charge of particles. Capillary and wetting phenomena. Thermodynamics of interfacial tension and adsorption. Applications to surfactants, polymers, biodispersions, flotation, separations, oil recovery, etc.
Introduction to Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes (IPPH 56200)
A course intended to provide the student with basic understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of pharmaceutical manufacturing by combining a thorough classroom treatment of the underlying principles of each pharmaceutical unit operation with hands-on execution of these activities in the laboratory.
Spray Applications and Theory (ME 52600)
Theory of spray formation and evolution as well as treating a host of spray applications. Topics include drop size distributions, breakup of liquid sheets and ligaments, drop formation and breakup, drop motion and the interaction between a spray and its surroundings, drop evaporation, nozzle internal fluid mechanics, external spray characteristics, nozzle performance, and experimental techniques relevant to these subjects. Applications include: (1) agricultural sprays, (2) consumer products, (3) gas turbine combustion, (4) heat transfer, (5) internal combustion engines, (6) paints and coatings, (7) pharmaceutical and medicinal sprays, and (8) spray drying.
Particle, Powder, and Compact Characterization (ME 53100)
The goal of this course is to familiarize students with the properties and methods used to characterize the mechanical behavior of particles, powders, and compacts, with the intention of using these properties for process and performance design. Students will work with a subset of the measurement methods in a laboratory setting. Students successfully completing the course will be able to: (1) define and describe the significant properties of particles, powders, and compacts; (2) describe and demonstrate techniques used to measure these properties; and (3) demonstrate how these properties are useful in product and manufacturing performance.
Powder Processing (MSE 51200)
Processing of engineering materials from powders. Synthesis of metals, ceramics, and polymers in powder form. Characteristics of particulates. Behavior of collections of particles; surface forces, particle agglomeration and dispersion, gelation, particle packing. Consolidation of powders; mechanics of dry flow and compaction, slurry rheology, shaping processes. Densification and microstructural development; geometry, thermodynamics, and kinetics of sintering, liquid-phase sintering, reaction densification, infiltration. Powder processing of composites.