K.S.N. Vikrant, X.L. Phuah, J. Lund, Han Wang, C.S. Hellberg, N. Bernstein, W. Rheinheimer, C.M. Bishop, H. Wang, and R.E. García “Modeling of flash sintering of ionic ceramics.“ MRS Bulletin, 46(1):67-75, 2021. doi:10.1557/s43577-020-00012-0
A fundamental understanding of the influence of defects in ionic ceramics at the atomic, microstructural, and macroscopic levels, before, during, and after the flash sintering event is key to the development of ceramic processing operations that lead to fast, low cost, and environmentally safe fabrication of materials. The observed phenomenology of the flash process encompasses multiple time and length scales and have resulted in a wide variety of what sometimes appears to be contradictory explanations. This article summarizes the latest developments on the modeling and simulation of flash sintering, specifically those related to the understanding of the equilibrium and kinetic properties and the corresponding microstructural evolution of ionic ceramics. Challenges and opportunities in the development of theoretical analyses that include unidentified multiphysical effects are discussed, as they pertain to the processing of technologically relevant ceramic materials for advanced structures and devices.