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Facets of Purdue

Hovde Hall
Hovde Hall
Bell Tower
Bell Tower
Slayter Hill
Slayter Hill

Experimental Facilities

The Photonics and Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL), led by Professor Vlad Shalaev, performs cutting-edge research in nanoscale materials, including nanoplasmonics, nanophotonics, and metamaterials. The laboratory is located in Room 1273 of the Birck Nanotechnology Center (BNC) at Purdue University. Experimental research in the PSL is supervised and facilitated by Dr. Drachev, a senior research scientist and member of the Shalaev research group who has extensive experience in optics, photonics, lasers, sensing and other areas. The experimental work is supported and complemented by advanced simulation and computational efforts under the guidance of Dr. Kildishev, a principal researcher and member of the Shalaev research team. The PSL conducts research on novel plasmonic metamaterials and their applications in photonics, optoelectronics, and spectroscopy. This research is performed in close association with a number of interdisciplinary groups at the BNC. The major focus in our research is on developing new means for manipulating light and sensing molecules with plasmonic metamaterials.

In the PSL, our facilities include a scanning near-field optical microscope (NSOM) from Nanonics, which allows the microscopy and spectroscopy of nanostructures with subwavelength, nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We also have a Lambda-950 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer with variable resolution from Perkin-Elmer, giving us the capability to perform far-field spectral measurements for large samples. For smaller samples, such as those down to about 50 m x 50 m in size, a custom-built measurement setup is available in the PSL that includes a TRIAX 550 spectrophotometer. We also have a Renishaw Raman microscope, which, in combination with the Nanonics NSOM, allows us to perform near-field Raman/fluorescence spectroscopy. There is also a 4-wavelength Raman/fluorescence system composed of an Ar/Kr laser, a selective collection device, and an Acton image monochromator with a liquid nitrogen-cooled CCD camera. The PSL is well-equipped with various laser sources, including a Spectra-Physics Tsunami Ti:sapphire laser, a Spitfire amplifier, a regenerative amplifier pumped by a Nd:YLF laser (Evolution), and two Quantronix TOPAS optical parametric amplifiers. In combination, these allow us to produce picosecond or nanosecond laser pulses at any wavelength between 290 nm to 20 m. In addition to other equipment, this system is used in experiments involving supercontinuum and pump-probe measurements, for example. Other lasers available in our lab include a He-Ne laser at 632 nm, a 532 nm laser, several diode lasers, and a pulsed CO2 laser (MTL-3GT Mini TEA from Edinburgh Instruments) operating at 10.6 μm. For the important telecommunication wavelengths, we have an HP 81680A tunable laser module with a wavelength range of 1480-1583 nm. Lastly, we have a HORIBA Jobin Yvon T64000 triple-monochromator spectrophotometer system for performing Raman/luminescence studies without the use of notch filters.

Aside from our own equipment and capabilities, we have access to all the world-class facilities available at Purdue's Birck Nanotechnology Center, a new $58M building opened in 2005. The BNC is an interdisciplinary research center that provides infrastructure for 160 affiliated faculty members and their research groups from 36 academic units at Purdue. The 187,000 sq. ft. facility includes a 25,000 sq. ft.

Discovery Park at Purdue University. The Birck Nanotechnology Center (upper right) houses the Photonics and Spectroscopy Lab and numerous shared fabrication and characterization facilities.

ISO Class 3-4-5 (Class 1-10-100) nanofabrication cleanroom - the Scifres Nanofabrication Laboratory - that includes a 2,500 sq. ft. ISO Class 6 (Class 1000) pharmaceutical-grade biomolecular cleanroom. In addition to the cleanroom, the facility provides 22,000 sq. ft. of laboratory space, some of which is highly specialized, including EMI protected space, NIST-A1 vibration isolated slabs, and temperature control to 0.01 C. All BNC laboratories are designed for low acoustic noise, less than 1 milligauss EMI, and +/-1 oC temperature stability.

The equipment in the BNC is shared by all affiliated researchers and includes optical lithography, optical mask fabrication, metal and dielectric deposition, pulsed laser deposition, electrodeposition, reactive-ion etching, scanning probe microscopy, focused ion-beam processing, atomic-layer deposition, semiconductor epitaxial growth, oxidation and CVD furnaces, surface analysis (AES and XPS), electron

The 25,000 sq. ft. Scifres Nano- fabrication Laboratory in the Birck Nanotechnology Center.

microscopy (field emission SEM and TEM), high-resolution x-ray diffraction, numerous fume hoods for wet chemistry processing, and full electrical measurement and device characterization capabilities. Specialized tools include a Vistec VectorBeam VB-6 UHR-EWF electron-beam lithography tool capable of 6 nm resolution in resist, a Raith electron-beam lithography instrument designed for patterning and probing nanomaterials, a nanoimprint lithography tool, an interference lithography system capable of 100-nm resolution, and an FEI Titan 80-300 keV field-emission TEM customized for atomic resolution in situ studies of materials at temperatures up to 1600 oC in reactive environments. The BNC also features some of the best ultra-pure water in the world, supplying all laboratories and the cleanroom with nano-grade water contains less than 15 parts per trillion of boron, less than 225 parts per trillion of total oxidizable carbon (TOC) and less than 1 part per billion of dissolved oxygen.

For more information on this laboratory, contact Prof. V. Shalaev, phone: 765-494-9855, e-mail:

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