Gifted and Talented Students
According to Ken Seeley (1998),
there are myriad definitions of underachieving gifted students. All
these definitions suggest an incongruence between potential (usually
as measured by IQ) and performance (especially in daily school work
Butler-Por (1987) suggested
using the following procedures to look for giftedness in
- Looking at discrepancies between high cognitive
reasoning abilities and ordinary schoolwork mastery.
- Finding differences between high-interest topical
reading and failure to complete general reading
- Observing task persistence at high levels of
performance on topics of interest compared to ordinary or low
motivation on schoolwork.
- Using teacher evaluation,
student evaluation, and parent evaluation of strengths and
According to Reis & McCoach (2000), the
following are common characteristics of gifted
- Low self-esteem, low self-concept, low
- Alienated or withdrawn; distrustful, or
- Anxious, impulsive, inattentive, hyperactive
or distractible; may exhibit ADD or ADHD symptoms.
- Aggressive, hostile, resentful, or
- Passive-aggressive trait disturbance.
- More socially than academically oriented. May
be extroverted. May be easygoing, considerate, or
- Dependent, less resilient than high
- Socially immature.
- Fear of failure; may avoid competition or
challenging situations to protect self-image.
- Fear of success.
- Attribute successes or failures to outside
forces; exhibit an external locus of control, attribute successes
to luck and failures to lack of ability; externalize conflict and
- Negative attitude toward school.
- Antisocial or rebellious.
- Self-critical or perfectionistic; feeling
guilty about not living up to the expectations of others.
- Performs less well on tasks that require
detail-oriented or convergent thinking skills than their achieving
- Score lower on sequential tasks such as
repeating digits, repeating sentences, coding, computation, and
- Lack insight and critical ability.
- Lack goal-directed behavior; fail to set
realistic goals for themselves.
- Poor coping skills; develop coping mechanisms
that successfully reduce short-term stress, but inhibit long-term
- Possess poor self-regulation strategies; low
tolerance for frustration; lack of perseverance; lack
- Use defense mechanisms.
- Intense outside interests, commitment to
- Demonstrate honesty and integrity in rejecting
unchallenging course work.
The Rebel/The Defiant
Learner/The Anxious Underachiever
Learner/The Coasting Underachiever
The Single Sided
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identify gifted and talented students?