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GSSP Table - Paleozoic Era

Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)
Ages from "The Geologic Time Scale 2012" by F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg, M.D. Schmitz and G.M. Ogg, (2012, published by Elsevier)


Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era Precambrian All Periods
Stage Age (Ma) GTS 2012 GSSP Location Latitude, Longitude Boundary Level Correlation Events Status Reference
Permian System
Lopingian Series
Changhsingian Stage 254.2 ± 0.3 Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China 31.0819°N 119.7064°E base of Bed 4a-2, 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone at the Meishan D Section Conodont FAD Clarkina wangi Ratified 2005 Episodes 29/3, p. 175-182, 2006
Wuchiapingian Stage 259.8 ± 0.4 Penglaitan, Guangxi Province, South China 23.6953°N 109.3211°E base of Bed 6k in the Penglaitan Section Conodont FAD Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri Ratified 2004 Episodes 29/4, p. 253-262, 2006
Guadalupian Series
Capitanian Stage 265.1 ± 0.4 Nipple Hill, SE Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A 31.9091°N 104.7892°W 4.5m above the base of the outcrop section of the Pinery Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation Conodont FAD Jinogondolella postserrata Ratified 2001
Wordian Stage 268.8 ± 0.5 Guadalupe Pass, Texas, U.S.A 31.8658°N 104.8328°W 7.6m above the base of the Getaway Ledge outcrop Section of the Getaway Limestone Member of the Cherry Canyon Formation Conodont FAD Jinogondolella aserrata Ratified 2001
Roadian Stage 272.3 ± 0.5 Stratotype Canyon, Texas, U.S.A 31.8767°N 104.8768°W 42.7m above the base of the Cutoff Formation Conodont FAD Jinogondolella nankingensis Ratified 2001
Cisuralian Series
Kungurian Stage 279.3 ± 0.6 candidates are in southern Ural Mtns. Near conodont FAD Neostreptognathus pnevi - N. exculptus Anticipated 2011
Artinskian Stage 290.1 ± 0.2 candidates are in southern Ural Mtns. Conodont FAD Sweetognathus whitei Anticipated 2011
Sakmarian Stage 295.5 ± 0.4 candidate is at Kondurovsky, Orenburg Province, Russia. Near conodont FAD Sweetognathus merrelli Anticipated 2011
Asselian Stage 298.9 ± 0.2 Aidaralash Creek, Kazakhstan 50.2458°N 57.8914°E 27m above the base of Bed 19, Aidaralash Creek Conodont FAD of Streptognathodus isolatus Ratified 1996 Episodes 21/1, p. 11-18, 1998
Carboniferous System
Pennsylvanian Subsystem (series Classification Approved In 2004)
Upper Pennsylvanian Series
Gzhelian Stage 303.7 ± 0.1 candidates are in southern Urals or Nashui (south China). Conodont FAD Idiognathodus simulator (s.str.). Close to FAD of ammonoid Shumardites.
Kasimovian Stage 307 ± 0.2 candidates are in southern Urals, southwest USA and Nashui (south China). Fusulinid FAD Protriticites, which is near ammonoid FAD Eothalossoceras. Alternative (higher) base is fusulinid FAD Montiparus montiparus, which is near conodont FAD Idiognathodus sagittalis. Age given here is the higher version; the lower one is about 1 myr older.
Middle Pennsylvanian Series
Moscovian Stage 315.2 ± 0.2 candidates are in southern Urals or Nashui (south China). Either conodont FAD Idiognathoides postsulcatus or Declinognathodus donetzianus.
Lower Pennsylvanian Series
Bashkirian Stage 323.2 ± 0.4 Arrow Canyon, Nevada 36.7333°N 114.7778°W 82.9m above the top of the Battleship Formation in the lower Bird Spring Formation Conodont FAD Declinognathodus noduliferus Ratified 1996 Episodes 22/4, p. 272-283, 1999
Mississippian Subsystem
Upper Mississippian Series (series Classification Approved In 2004)
Serpukhovian Stage 330.9 ± 0.3 candidates are Verkhnyaya Kardailovka (Urals) or Nashui (China) Conodont FAD Lochriea ziegleri
Middle Mississippian Series
Visean Stage 346.7 ± 0.4 Pengchong, south China 24.4333°N 109.4500°E base of bed 83 in the Pengchong Section Benthic Foraminifer FAD Eoparastaffella simplex Ratified 2008
Lower Mississippian Series
Tournaisian Stage 358.9 ± 0.4 La Serre, France 43.5555°N 3.3573°E base of Bed 89 in Trench E' at La Serre, (but FAD now known to be at base of Bed 85) Conodont FAD Siphonodella sulcata
IMPRECISE (GSSP discovered in 2006 to have biostratigraphic problems, and can not be correlated with precision.)
Ratified 1990 Episodes 14/4, p. 331-336, 1991; Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 43/2, p. 195 - 205, 2009
Devonian System
Upper Devonian Series
Famennian Stage 372.2 ± 1.6 Coumiac Quarry, near Cessenon, Montagne Noire, France 43.4613°N 3.0403°E Base of Bed 32a Base of Conodont Palmatolepis triangularis Zone, just above a major extinction horizon (Kellwasser Event). Conodont FAD Palmatolepis subperlobata, conodont LADs Ancyrodella, Palmatolepis bogartensis and Ozarkodina, and Goniatite LADs of Gephuroceratidae and Beloceratidae Ratified 1993 Episodes 16/4, p. 433-441, 1993
Frasnian Stage 382.7 ± 1.6 Col du Puech de la Suque, Montage Noire, France 43.5032°N 3.0868°E base of Bed 42a' at Col du Puech de la Suque section E Conodont FAD Ancyrodella rotundiloba Ratified 1986 Episodes 10/2, p. 97-101, 1987
Middle Devonian Series
Givetian Stage 387.7 ± 0.8 Jebel Mech Irdane, Morocco 31.2374°N 4.3541°W base of Bed 123 Conodont FAD Polygnathus hemiansatus Ratified 1994 Episodes 18/3, p. 107-115, 1995
Eifelian Stage 393.3 ± 1.2 Wetteldorf, Eifel Hills, Germany 50.1496°N 6.4716°E 21.25m above the base of the exposed section, base of sample station WP30 Conodont FAD Polygnathus costatus partitus Ratified 1985 Episodes 8/2, p. 104-109, 1985
Lower Devonian Series
Emsian Stage 407.6 ± 2.6 Zinzil'ban Gorge in the Kitab State Geological Reserve, Uzbekistan 39.2000°N 67.3056°E base of Bed 9/5 Conodont FAD Eocostapolygnathus kitabicus Ratified 1995 Episodes 20/4, p. 235-240, 1997
Pragian Stage 410.8 ± 2.8 Velká Chuchle, Prague, Czech Republic 50.0147°N 14.3726°E base of Bed 12 in Velká Chuchle Quarry Conodont FAD Eognathodus sulcatus sulcatus and Latericriodus steinachensis Morph beta Ratified 1989 Episodes 12/2, p. 109-113, 1989
Lochkovian Stage 419.2 ± 3.2 Klonk, near Prague, Czech Republic 49.8550°N 13.7920°E within Bed 20 Graptolite FAD Monograptus uniformis Ratified 1972 IUGS Series A, 5, p. 96-109, 1977
Silurian System
Přídolí Series 423 ± 2.3 Požáry Section, Reporyje, Prague, Czech Republic 50.0277°N 14.3249°E within Bed 96, about 2 m above the base of the Požáry Formation Graptolite FAD Neocolonograptus parultimus Ratified 1984 Episodes 8/2, p. 101-103, 1985; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 90 - 100, 1989
Ludlow Series
Ludfordian Stage 425.6 ± 0.9 near Ludlow, UK 52.3592°N 2.7772°W coincident with the base of the Leintwardine Formation Imprecise. May be near base of Saetograptus leintwardinensis Graptolite zone. Ratified 1980 Lethaia 14; Episodes 5/3, p. 21-23, 1982; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 73 - 90, 1989
Gorstian Stage 427.4 ± 0.5 near Ludlow, UK 52.3592°N 2.7772°W coincident with the base of the Lower Elton Formation Graptolite FAD Saetograptus (Colonograptus) varians Ratified 1980 Lethaia 14; Episodes 5/3, p. 21-23, 1982; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 73 - 90, 1989
Wenlock Series
Homerian Stage 430.5 ± 0.7 Sheinton Brook, Homer, UK 52.6156°N 2.5647°W within upper part of the Apedale Member of the Coalbrookdale Formation Graptolite FAD Cyrtograptus lundgreni Ratified 1980 Lethaia 14; Episodes 5/3, p. 21-23, 1982; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 51-73, 1989
Sheinwoodian Stage 433.4 ± 0.8 Hughley Brook, UK 52.5811°N 2.6389°W base of the Buildwas Formation Imprecise. Between the base of acritarch biozone 5 and LAD of conodont Pterospathodus amorphognathoides. The current GSSP does not coincide with the base of the Cyrtograptus centrifugus Biozone, as was supposed when the GSSP was defined. Restudy recommends a slightly higher and correlatable level on condonts -- the Ireviken datum 2, which coincides approximately with the base of the Cyrtograptus murchisoni Graptolite Biozone Ratified 1980 Lethaia 14; Episodes 5/3, p. 21-23, 1982; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 51-73, 1989
Llandovery Series
Telychian Stage 438.5 ± 1.1 Cefn-cerig Road Section, Wales, UK 51.9700°N 3.7900°W within the Wormwood Formation Just above Brachiopod LAD Eocoelia intermedia and below FAD of Eocoelia curtisi Ratified 1984 Episodes 8/2, p. 101-103, 1985; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 36-50, 1989
Aeronian Stage 440.8 ± 1.2 Trefawr Track Section, Wales, UK 52.0300°N 3.7000°W within Trefawr Formation Graptolite FAD Monograptus austerus sequens Ratified 1984 Episodes 8/2, p. 101-103, 1985; Geol. Series, Nat. Mus. Wales, 9, p. 36-50, 1989
Rhuddanian Stage 443.8 ± 1.5 Dob's Linn, Scotland 55.4400°N 3.2700°W 1.6m above the base of the Birkhill Shale Formation Graptolite FAD Akidograptus ascensus Ratified 1984 Episodes 8/2, p. 101-103, 1985; Silurian Times No. 14 (2006); Episodes 31/3, p. 315 - 318, 2008
Ordovician System
Upper Ordovician Series
Hirnantian Stage 445.2 ± 1.4 Wangjiawan North section, N of Yichang City, Western Hubei Province, China 30.9841°N 111.4197°E 0.39m below the base of the Kuanyinchiao Bed Graptolite FAD Normalograptus extraordinarius Ratified 2006 Episodes 29/3, p. 183-196, 2006
Katian Stage 453 ± 0.7 Black Knob Ridge Section, Atoka, Oklahoma (USA) 34.4305°N 96.0746°W 4.0m above the base of the Bigfork Chert Graptolite FAD Diplacanthograptus caudatus Ratified 2006 Episodes 30/4, p. 258-270, 2007
Sandbian Stage 458.4 ± 0.9 Sularp Brook, Fågelsång, Sweden 55.7137°N 13.3255°E 1.4m below a phosphorite marker bed in the E14b outcrop Graptolite FAD Nemagraptus gracilis Ratified 2002 Episodes 23/2, p. 102-109, 2000
Middle Ordovician Series
Darriwilian Stage 467.3 ± 1.1 Huangnitang section, Changshan, Zhejiang Province, SE China 28.8539°N 118.4897°E base of Bed AEP 184 Graptolite FAD Undulograptus austrodentatus Ratified 1997 Episodes 20/3, p. 158-166, 1997
Dapingian Stage 470 ± 1.4 Huanghuachang Section, NE of Yichang city, Hubei Province, S. China 30.8605°N 110.3740°E 10.57 m above base of the Dawan Formation Conodont FAD of Baltoniodus triangularis Ratified 2007 Episodes 28/2, p. 105 - 117, 2005; Episodes 32/2, p. 96-113, 2009
Lower Ordovician Series
Floian Stage 477.7 ± 1.4 Diabasbrottet, Hunneberg, Sweden 58.3589°N 12.5024°E in the lower Tøyen Shale, 2.1m above the top of the Cambrian Graptolite FAD Tetragraptus approximatus Ratified 2002 Episodes 27/4, p. 265-272, 2004
Tremadocian Stage 485.4 ± 1.9 Green Point Section, western Newfoundland 49.6829°N 57.9653°W at the 101.8m level, within Bed 23, in the measured section Conodont FAD Iapetognathus fluctivagus Ratified 2000 Episodes 24/1, p. 19 - 28, 2001
Cambrian System
Furongian Series
Stage 10 489.5 candidate section is Duibian (Zhejiang province, China) Trilobite FAD of Lotagnostus americanus. An internal substage division might be FAD of Codylodus adesei conodont
Jiangshanian 494 Duibian B Section (Zhejiang Province, China) 28.8160°N 118.6149°E 108.12m above the base of the Huayansi Formation at the base of an 8 cm thick layer of dark gray calcisiltites Trilobite FAD of Agnostotes orientalis Ratified 2011
Paibian Stage 497 Wuling Mountains, Huayuan County, NW Hunan Province, China 28.3895°N 109.5257°E at 396 m in the Huaqiao Formation Trilobite FAD Glyptagnostus reticulatus Ratified 2003 Lethaia 37, p. 365-379, 2004
Series 3
Guzhangian Stage 500.5 Louyixi, Guzhang County, NW Hunan Province, S. China 28.7200°N 109.9647°E 121.3 m above the base of the Huaqiao Formation Trilobite FAD Lejopyge laevigata Ratified 2008 Episodes 32/1, p.41-55, 2009
Drumian Stage 504.5 Drum Mountains, Millard County, Utah, USA 39.5117°N 112.9915°W at the base of a dark-gray thinly laminated calcisiltite layer, 62 m above the base of the Wheeler Formation Trilobite FAD Ptychagnostus atavus Ratified 2006 Episodes 30/2,p. 85-95, 2007
Stage 5 509 candidate sections are Wuliu-Zengjiayan (east Guizhou, China) and Split Mountain (Nevada, USA) Trilobite, potentially FAD of Oryctocephalus indicus
Series 2
Stage 4 514 Trilobite FAD Olenellus or Redlichia
Stage 3 521 Trilobites -- their FAD
Terreneuvian Series
Stage 2 529 Small Shelly Fossils, or Archaeocyathid species
Fortunian Stage 541 ± 1 Fortune Head, SE Newfoundland, Canada 47.0762°N 55.8310°W 2.4m above the base of Member 2 in the Chapel Island Formation Trace fossil FAD Trichophycus pedum Ratified 1992 Episodes 17/1&2, p. 95-100, 1994