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GSSP Table - Mesozoic Era

Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)
Ages from "The Geologic Time Scale 2012" by F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg, M.D. Schmitz and G.M. Ogg, (2012, published by Elsevier)


Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era Precambrian All Periods
Stage Age (Ma) GTS 2012 GSSP Location Latitude, Longitude Boundary Level Correlation Events Status Reference
Cretaceous System
Upper Cretaceous Series
Maastrichtian Stage 72.1 ± 0.2 Tercis les Bains, Landes, France 43.6795°N 1.1133°W level 115.2 on platform IV of the geological site at Tercis les Bains Mean of 12 biostratigraphic criteria of equal importance. Closely above is FAD of ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus. Boreal proxy is FAD of belemnite Belemnella lanceolata. Ratified 2001 Episodes 24/4, p. 229 -238, 2001
Campanian Stage 83.6 ± 0.2 candidates are in southern England and in Texas Crinoid LAD Marsupites testudinarius
Santonian Stage 86.3 ± 0.5 candidates are Olazagutia (Spain) and Ten-Mile Creek (Texas) Inoceramid bivalve FAD Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus
Coniacian Stage 89.8 ± 0.3 candidates are in Poland (Slupia Nadbrzena), USA (Pueblo, Colorado), and Germany (Salzgitter-Salder Quarry) Inoceramid bivalve FAD Cremnoceramus rotundatus (sensu Tröger non Fiege)
Turonian Stage 93.9 ± 0.2 Pueblo, Colorado, USA 38.2822°N 104.7275°W base of Bed 86 of the Bridge Creek Limestone Member Ammonite FAD Watinoceras devonense Ratified 2003 Episodes 28/2,p. 93 - 104, 2005
Cenomanian Stage 100.5 ± 0.4 Mount Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France 44.3925°N 5.5119°E 36 meters below the top of the Marnes Bleues Formation on the south side of Mont Risou Planktonic foraminifer FAD Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Ratified 2002 Episodes 27/1, p. 21-32, 2004
Lower Cretaceous Series
Albian Stage 113 ± 0.4 Southeastern France Candidates include: (1) calcareous nannofossil FAD of Praediscosphaera columnata (= P. cretacea of some earlier studies), (2) carbon-isotope excursion (black-shale episode), (3) ammonite
Aptian Stage 126.3 ± 0.4 candidate is Gorgo a Cerbara, Piobbico, Umbria-Marche, central Italy Magnetic -- base of Chron M0r; near FAD of Paradeshayesites oglanlensis ammonite zone
Barremian Stage 130.8 ± 0.5 candidate is Río Argos near Caravaca, Murcia Province, Spain Ammonite FAD Spitidiscus hugii - Spitidiscus vandeckii group
Hauterivian Stage 133.9 ± 0.6 candidate is La Charce village, Drôme Province, southeast France Ammonite FAD of genus Acanthodiscus (especially A. radiatus)
Valanginian Stage 139.4 ± 0.7 candidates are near Montbrun-les-Bains (Drôme province, SE France) and Cañada Luenga (Betic Cordillera, S. Spain) Calpionellid FAD Calpionellites darderi (base of Calpionellid Zone E); followed by ammonite FAD "Thurmanniceras" pertransiens
Berriasian Stage 145 ± 0.8 Candidates include: (1) Magnetic -- base of Chron M18r, (2) Base of Calpionellid zone B, (3) ammonite FAD of Berriasella jacobi
Jurassic System
Upper Jurassic Series
Tithonian Stage 152.1 ± 0.9 candidates are Mt. Crussol or Canjuers (SE France) and Fornazzo (Sicily, S. Italy) Near base of Hybonoticeras hybonotum ammonite zone and lowest occurrence of Gravesia genus, and the base of magnetic polarity Chron M22An
Kimmeridgian Stage 157.3 ± 1 candidate is Flodigarry (Isle of Skye, NW Scotland) 57.6000°N 6.2000°W Ammonite near base of Pictonia baylei ammonite zone of Boreal realm Anticipated 2010
Oxfordian Stage 163.5 ± 1.1 candidates are Redcliff Point (Dorset, SW England) and Savouron (Provence, SE France) Ammonite Cardioceras redcliffense Horizon at base of the Cardioceras scarburgense Subzone (Quenstedtoceras mariae Zone)
Middle Jurassic Series
Callovian Stage 166.1 ± 1.2 candidates are Pfeffingen (Swabian Alb, SW Germany) and in Russia Ammonite FAD of the genus Kepplerites (Kosmoceratidae) (defines base of Macrocephalites herveyi Zone in sub-Boreal province of Great Britain to southwest Germany)
Bathonian Stage 168.3 ± 1.3 Ravin du Bès, Bas-Auran area, Alpes de Haute Provence, France 43.9606°N 6.3153°E base of limestone bed RB07 Ammonite FAD Gonolkites convergens (defines base of Zigzagiceras zigzag Zone) Ratified 2008 Episodes 32/4, p. 222 - 248, 2009
Bajocian Stage 170.3 ± 1.4 Murtinheira Section, Cabo Mondego, Portugal 40.1992°N 8.9042°W base of Bed AB 11 Ammonite FAD Hyperlioceras mundum, Hyperlioceras furcatum, Braunsina aspera, and Braunsina elegantula Ratified 1996 Episodes 20/1, p.16 - 22, 1997
Aalenian Stage 174.1 ± 1 Fuentelsaz, Spain 41.1708°N 1.8333°W base of Bed FZ 107 Ammonite FAD Leioceras opalinum and Leioceras lineatum Ratified 2000 Episodes 24/3, p.166-175, 2001
Lower Jurassic Series
Toarcian Stage 182.7 ± 0.7 Peniche (Portugal) Ammonite near FAD of a diversified Eodactylites ammonite fauna; correlates with the NW European Protogrammoceras paltus horizon.
Pliensbachian Stage 190.8 ± 1 Wine Haven, Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire Coast, England 54.4069°N 0.4975°W base of Bed 73b Ammonite association of Bifericeras donovani and Apoderoceras sp. Ratified 2005 Episodes 29/2, p. 93-106, 2006
Sinemurian Stage 199.3 ± 0.3 East Quantoxhead, SW England 51.1909°N 3.2364°W 0.90 m above the base of Bed 145 Ammonite FAD Vermiceras quantoxense, Vermiceras palmeri Ratified 2000 Episodes 25/1, p. 22-28, 2002
Hettangian Stage 201.3 ± 0.2 Kuhjoch section, Tyrol, Austria 47.4833°N 11.5306°E 5.80 m above the base of the Tiefengraben Member of the Kendelbach Formation Ammonite FAD of Psiloceras spelae tirolicum Ratified 2010 Episodes 36/3, p.162-198, 2013
Triassic System
Upper Triassic Series
Rhaetian Stage 209.5 Key sections in Austria, British Columbia (Canada), and Turkey Near FAD of ammonite Cochloceras, conodonts Misikella spp. and Epigondolella mosheri, and radiolarian Proparvicingula moniliformis
Norian Stage 228.4 Candidates are Black Bear Ridge in British Columbia (Canada) and Pizzo Mondello, Sicily (Italy) Base of Stikinoceras kerri ammonoid zone and near FAD of Metapolygnathus echinatus within the M. communisti conodont zones
Carnian Stage 237 ± 1 Prati di Stuores, Dolomites, Italy 46.5269°N 11.9303°E base of marly limestone bed SW4, 45m from base of San Cassiano Formation FAD ammonoid Daxatina canadensis, near conodont FAD "Paragondolella" polygnathiformis noah. Just above magnetic polarity zone S2n and above the maximum flooding surface of Sequence Lad 3 of Hardenbol et al (1998). Ratified 2008 Albertina 36, p. 78 - 97, 2007; Episodes, 35/3, p. 414 - 430
Middle Triassic Series
Ladinian Stage 241.5 ± 1 Bagolino, Province of Brescia, Northern Italy 45.8193°N 10.4710°E base of a 15 - 20cm thick limestone bed overlying a distinctive groove ("Chiesense groove") of limestone nodules in a shaly matrix, located about 5m above the base of the Buchenstein Beds Ammonite FAD Eoprotrachyceras curionii (base of the E. curionii zone). Conodont FAD Budurovignathus praehungaricus is in the uppermost Anisian. Ratified 2005 Episodes 28/4, p. 233-244, 2005
Anisian Stage 247.1 ± 0.2 Candidate section at Desli Caira (Dobrogea, Romania); significant sections in Guizhou Province (China) and South Primorye (Russia) 45.0742°N 28.8022°E In Section B, the GSSP level will be either the FAD of conodont Chiosella timorensis at the base of Bed GR7 at ca. 7 m; OR the base of magnetozone MT1n at the 5.7 m level. Conodont FAD Chiosella timorensis or Magnetic -- base of magnetic polarity MT1n Anticipated 2010 Albertiana 36, 2007.
Lower Triassic Series
Olenekian Stage 250 ± 0.5 Candidate GSSP Mud (Muth) village, Spiti valley, northwest India 31.9654°N 78.0246°E base of Bed 13A-2, about 4.8m up in Mikin Formation., Section M04 (~4000 m elevation Conodont FAD Neospathodus waageni, just above base of Rohillites rohilla ammonite zone, and below lowest occurrence of Flemingites and Euflemingites ammonite genera. Within a prominent positive Carbon-13 peak, and just above widely recognizable sequence boundary. Anticipated 2010 Albertiana 36, 2007.
Induan Stage 252.2 ± 0.5 Meishan, Zhejiang Province, China 31.0798°N 119.7058°E base of Bed 27c in the Meishan D Section Conodont FAD Hindeodus parvus Ratified 2001 Episodes 24/2, p. 102 - 114, 2001