Maha Fluid Power Research Center
Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power
Global Fluid Power Society

2023 Maha Fluid Power Conference

Purdue University, May 9th - 10th


Event description

The 2023 Maha Conference is scheduled for May 9 (Tue) and May 10 (Wed) at Purdue University. It is designed as "members only" event, meaning participation is open only to Purdue faculty and students, industry members of the Maha Fluid Power Research Center, and some prospective members.

The event will feature 23 technical presentations from Maha and other affiliated labs. Networking events (coffee breaks, lunches and a conference dinner) are included with the conference registration. Tours of the Maha Fluid Power Research Center facilities and the Mechanical Engineering Tribology Laboratory will also be available for all participants.

Executive members of the Research Center are entitled to 3 free participant registrations, while Basic Members are provided with 1. Additional participants will require a $400 registration fee. The free registrations are determined by each industry representative (see list of the Maha Industry Board Members under "Maha Membership").

We hope to meet you in May at Purdue to keep up to date with the latest research progress in fluid power!

The schedule for the conference is given below. Click here to download the guide for participants.

NEW! The PDF version of the presentation slides can be downloaded here.


To register please follow the registration link. The registration will be open until April 25th, 2023.

Please note that the registration fee is not refundable.

Tentative Schedule

Tuesday, May 9

7:30 AM - 8:15 AM at WALC 1121 Breakfast
8:15 AM - 8:45 AM at WALC 1132 Welcoming Remarks and Introduction
Andrea Vacca: Maha 2023 Conference
8:45 AM - 9:50 PM at WALC 1132
Purdue Faculty Presentations (Chaired by Andrea Vacca)
Lizhi Shang: Thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic simulation of axial piston machines
John Evans: Autonomous System Modeling and Implementation in Agriculture Abstract: The Evans' lab is using the Unreal Engine to accelerate autonomous system development in row crop agriculture. By creating virtual environments that accurately replicate the complexities of real-world agricultural operations, the Evans' lab is able to rapidly prototype and refine autonomous systems without the need for expensive, time-consuming, and potentially unsafe experiments. The lab Is using this approach to bring the benefits of autonomy to agricultural stakeholders across the industry. This presentation will review some of the projects on which the lab has leveraged this methodology.
Farshid Sadeghi: Purdue Mechanical Engineering Tribology Laboratory (METL) Abstract:
9:50 AM - 10:20 AM at WALC 1121 Coffee Break
10:20 AM - 12:00 PM at WALC 1132
Technical Presentations - Electrification (Chaired by Jose Garcia)
Shanmukh Sarode: Optimizing Electric Machines for Off-Road Mobile Applications Abstract: Electric machines (EM) act as prime movers for hydraulic machines in an electrified off-road vehicle fluid power system. This study discusses different EM sizing strategies for both fixed and variable displacement pump architectures for a representative drive cycle obtained from a 5-ton mini excavator. The study leverages a well-established multi-objective, genetic algorithm-based EM optimization tool to search for the most compact and efficient permanent magnet synchronous machine design following different sizing strategies. Each sizing strategy uses different metrics such as the corner power, the maximum power, the continuous operatable torque, and the RMS torque of the entire drive cycle to characterize the required EM continuous capability. A comprehensive comparison of the size, mass, and efficiency of the optimized EM designs following the different sizing strategies is presented. The selection of an appropriate sizing strategy can help downsize the EM while meeting the operating demands of the fluid power system. This comparison provides a guideline on the effect of different sizing considerations in the EM design for fluid power systems in off-road vehicles.
Parth Tawarawala: A Survey Study on E-Pump Design Architectures for Mobile Hydraulics Abstract: With the electrification trends affecting mobile hydraulics, there is a growing need for energy-efficient and compact hydraulic supply units driven by electric machines, also known as E-Pumps. This conference presentation aims to compare various E-Pump designs that utilize different combinations of “best-in-class” commercially available hydraulic pumps along with a specific electric machine, to meet the requirements of a generic mobile hydraulic application. A large combination of E-Pump architectures exists, and for engineers, it can be difficult to assess the pros and cons of each option for an electrified application. To address this challenge, in this presentation, different commercially available pumps are chosen, along with a reference PMSM-type electric machine, to evaluate key performance and design parameters such as drive-cycle efficiencies, mass, and volume. Qualitative cost considerations are also made. By providing a benchmarking based on a generalized utilization cycle, this study will serve as a guideline for the selection of the proper E-Pump architectures in electrifying mobile hydraulic applications.
Federico Zappaterra: Design of Positive Displacement Gear Machine Drives Abstract: Electrification of off-highway vehicles is an expanding trend that has gained popularity due to the possibility of implementing innovative control strategies, resulting in increased efficiency, zero-emission operation, and energy recuperation. In this study are proposed two different electro-hydraulic drive (EHD) architectures that target efficiency, compactness, and cost-effectiveness. To design the critical components of the EHDs are sued two models dedicated to the hydraulic and the electric machines respectively. These two models are coupled in a genetic algorithm-based optimization that aims to minimizing energy consumption and allows the tailoring of the two machines onto each other in terms of function and morphology. After defining their morphology, the two machines are integrated reducing the components and strategically implementing an electric machine air cooling system for the first architecture and a liquid cooling system for the second architecture. After the design phase, the two prototypes were manufactured and their efficiency performance tested in a stand-alone configuration and on a reference vehicle to prove their effectiveness.
Scott Sudhoff: Next Generation Homopolar AC Machines: A New Class of Rotating Electric Machinery Abstract: Homopolar AC Machines (HAMs) are of interest because of low rotor loss, a simple and mechanically robust rotor, and the related ability to operate at high speeds. These machines are frequently utilized in flywheel energy storage systems but are dominated by permanent magnet ac machines or induction machines in other contexts such as vehicle traction. The aim of this work is to create a more torque-dense homopolar machine. The Dual Rotor Homopolar AC Machine (DHAM) is proposed herein. The fundamental operating principles of the DHAM are explained, and its torque equation and terminal characteristics are outlined. The permanent magnet version of the machine is shown to have an infinite constant power speed range without field weakening the magnet flux. The machine also has highly favorable thermal characteristics and features a simple and modular construction. In addition, the machine can more effectively make use of low-grade magnets than surface-mounted permanent magnet ac machines (PMACs). The DHAM is shown to be superior to PMACs for a 100kW passenger vehicle traction application. Finally, the status of a 6-pole 18.1-kW DHAM prototype machine is discussed.
Hassan Assaf: Control of Linear Functions with Electric Prime Movers
12:00 PM - 1:00 PM at WALC 1121 Lunch Break
1:00 PM - 2:20 PM at WALC 1132
Technical Presentations - Pumps and Motors (Chaired by Lizhi Shang)
Nathan Hess: Simulation of Lubricating Film Pressure and Valve Block Micromotion in a Radial Piston Motors Abstract: Radial piston motors are commonly used for propulsion applications due to their high efficiency and smooth, high-torque operation at low speeds. Due to the high operating pressures and low speeds of radial piston motors, minimizing leakage and wear requires an accurate model of the micromotion and hydrostatic balancing of the internal components, including consideration of fluid-structure interaction. This presentation will highlight the key components involved in modeling the cylinder block-valve block lubricating interface in a radial piston motor with Maha’s Multics software. Sample model results will be shown for a radial piston motor provided by Poclain Hydraulics.
Ajinkya Pawar: Modeling of Casing Wear in External Gear Machines Considering Deformation Effects Abstract:Casing wear-in of external gear machines is an important process affecting the overall efficiency and therefore is an important modeling consideration. This talk presents a new simulation approach for modeling the wear-in process, developed within the Multics-HYGESim (HYdraulic Gear Machine Simulator) tool. This approach integrates the effects of the radial micromotion of the gears and the deformation of lateral bushings, gears, and casing to determine the wear. A validation of the proposed methodology is shown by comparison with experimental data.
Dinghao Pan: Mechanical Efficiency Prediction in Internal Gear Pump Abstract: This presentation focuses on the mechanical efficiency of internal gear pumps, which are frequently used in hydraulic systems due to their small size and low noise levels. The proposed model-based prediction method utilizes a combination of simulation modules, including lumped volume pressure simulation, lubricating interface modeling, and component rigid body kinetics solutions. The presentation will provide a comprehensive overview of the major mechanical loss factors in pressure-compensated internal gear pumps, as well as modeling strategies to address them. Additionally, measurements obtained from Maha will be included for comparison with the model, allowing for accurate model assessment and validation.
Antonio Masia / Dazhuag He: Vibro-Acoustic Simultaneous Transfer Path Analysis of Axial Piston Machines Abstract: This project investigates noise reduction in piston units, with a focus on swashplate pumps and bent axis motors. The study aims to identify the root causes of noise and classify their contributions to the total noise level. The approach involves utilizing 1D and FEM simulations, and a Simultaneous Transfer Path Analysis (sTPA) for NVH simulation. In addition, a new measurement concept, Digital Image Correlation System, is proposed for contactless vibration measurement at high frequency to identify pump surface vibration modes and assist in FEM model development and validation. The study aims to provide a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms causing noise in piston units and to lay the groundwork for effective noise reduction solutions. The proposed experimental investigation will validate the effectiveness of the proposed noise reduction methods.
2:40 PM - 3:40 PM at WALC 1132
Technical Presentations - Misc. (Chaired by Andrea Vacca)
Israa Azzam: Fluid Power in the Era of Digital Reality: Exploring Innovations and Applications Abstract: Fluid power has a well-defined research area and scholarly activities, making it a key technology for many industries for several decades, not limited to agriculture, construction, transportation, aerospace, marine, manufacturing, and many others. The emergence of digitization and digital reality technologies, which involve the use of high-tech media, has sparked significant interest in their potential to shape the future of work and workers, particularly in transforming fluid power industries to new heights. Among several cutting-edge technologies, extended reality (XR) stands out as the forthcoming evolution of the human-machine interface in the real-virtual environment, utilizing computers and wearables to enable virtual, augmented, and mixed realities. It uses sensor data and computer models to integrate the real and physical world, producing new digital environments where physical and digital elements can interact in real-time. This technology permits running simulations that examine the complexity of highly coupled systems, where understanding the physical phenomena can be complex. Given all these features, incorporating XR technology in fluid power can allow exploring new innovative solutions to overcome some of today’s fluid power challenges. XR has the potential to serve as a versatile tool in fluid power, facilitating the simulation of complex fluid power systems, virtual training, visualization and validation of complex designs, and accelerating remote assistance. This work explores the innovations of fluid power applications in the digital era, examining the integration of several digital reality technologies to enhance fluid power systems.
Jose Alejandro Solorio: Machine Learning Modeling for Failure Prediction and Diagnosis in Hydraulic Systems Abstract: Applications of hydraulic systems are found today in a wide variety of devices, mostly in industrial and mobile machines. When extending the life and ensuring the correct operation of these machines is critical, analytical tools that provide more accurate information about the functioning and operation of these systems must be integrated to make proactive decisions. In industrial and mobile applications, there are many sensors and methods for measuring and determining the state of process variables (e.g., flow, pressure, force). However, little has been done to implement a system that can provide users with equipment status information related to on-machine hydraulics status. Implementing artificial intelligence (AI) technology and machine learning (ML) models in hydraulic system components is presented here as a solution to the challenges many industries face today, optimizing processes and making them safer and more efficient. This research paper presents a solution for characterizing and estimating anomalies in hydraulic cylinders, one of the most versatile and widely used components in fluid-powered systems. This work describes AI and ML models implemented to determine the operating state of cylinders and whether they function normally, in specific failure modes, or in abnormal conditions that can be predicted before a catastrophic failure occurs. The models implemented demonstrated over 95% level of accuracy in predicting the failure of the component studied and presented in this work.
Fabio A Castiblanco Rubio: The Open Ag Technologies and Systems Center (OATS)
3:40 PM - 4:00 PM at WALC 1121 Coffee Break
4:00 PM - 5:20 PM at WALC 1132
Technical Presentations - Hydraulic Control Systems (Chaired by Farid Breidi)
Elena Menegatti: Well to Wheel Efficiency of a Hydraulic LS Mini-Excavator Considering Different Prime Mover Technologies Abstract: This presentation will discuss the overall energy efficiency, flow source to end actuation, of an off-road excavator, taking into account different technologies for the prime mover. Taking as a reference case a diesel powered 5-ton excavator, a numerical model of the LS system is validated on the basis of a typical utilization cycle, and was used to carry out an in-depth energy analysis of the system. The available data is used to evaluate different well to wheel efficiency scenarios considering different alternatives for the prime mover. The case of a hydrogen engine, and a battery electric actuation are considered based on available literature data. Results will highlight advantages and drawbacks of different technologies.
Jake Lengacher: Reducing the Impact of High Dynamic Actuators on an Agricultural Multi-Pressure-Rail System Using a Hydraulic Transformer Abstract: The MPR Architecture has been demonstrated in prior work to provide the potential for significant improvement in hydraulic system efficiency when applied to agricultural systems. Such systems are vulnerable to disruption due to high dynamic actuators, actuators that change loads rapidly and over a wide range. These functions, if left unmanaged, risk compromising the stability of the system, as it attempts to track the fast moving loads. In this work, a previously defined MPR architecture will be augmented via implementation of a Hydraulic Transformer Isolation system with the goal of isolating a high dynamic actuator, improving system stability and efficiency. This is accomplished by running a hydraulic transformer off of a low load actuator and using it to charge an isolated, accumulator stabilized high pressure line. The existing MPR architecture will be reviewed, then the operating principle of the HTI architecture will be explored. After this, an experimental setup allowing for the demonstration of the system’s efficacy will be presented, and the results, comparing the MPR + HTI system to a simple MPR and unmodified baseline system will be shown, demonstrating remarkable improvement in system stability and in efficiency over the baseline system.
Zihao Xu: Control of Common Pressure Rail Systems for Linear Actuators Abstract: Common Pressure Rail (CPR) systems have shown promising power consumption reduction potentials in the application of construction machines, where multiple functions are to be actuated. In this presentation, a brief introduction to CPR systems and the principle of energy saving will be provided. After demonstrating the control challenge towards the application of CPR systems in construction machines, the proposed secondary controller for linear actuators will be shown with simulation results and experiment videos. In the end, a comparison of energy consumption with other architectures will be displayed considering a 90-degree truck loading cycle.
Yakun Zhang: Particle Filter-based Hybrid Condition Monitoring Method for Hydraulic Systems Abstract: Effective condition monitoring is essential for the modern hydraulic industry. The current state-of-the-art methods for condition monitoring can be broadly classified into two categories: model-based and data-driven methods. Model-based methods can provide valuable insights into a system if the system is accurately modeled, and the results can be applied to various operating conditions. However, developing an accurate model of the system can be challenging, and the accuracy of most model-based methods is limited. On the other hand, data-driven methods are relatively easier to establish and offer high accuracy, but their ability to generalize results to different operating conditions is limited. To address these limitations, this presentation proposes a particle filter-based hybrid condition monitoring method for hydraulic systems. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are validated through a case study on a hydraulic cylinder. The promising results demonstrate that the proposed method provides high precision as well as the ability to generalize to different operating conditions.
6:30 PM - 9:00 PM
Conference Dinner - Social Event
Location: The Outpost, 2501 Old U.S. 231, Lafayette, IN 47909 (Google Map)

Wednesday, May 10

7:30 AM - 8:00 AM at WALC 1121 Breakfast
8:00 AM - 9:10 AM at WALC 1018
Purdue Faculty Presentations (Chaired by Andrea Vacca)
Jason Ostanek: Li-ion Battery Safety Modeling and Simulation & Powertrain Technology Instructional Facility Abstract: Dr. Jason Ostanek, Associate Professor of Engineering Technology, is a leading expert in the field of Li-ion battery safety modeling and simulation. His research focuses on simulating thermal runaway and propagating failures in Li-ion battery modules. While most thermal propagation studies consider only heat conduction as the primary mode of heat transfer, Dr. Ostanek and his team have developed new experimental and numerical methods to account for venting and combustion of flammable gases emerging from the cell. Highly-resolved CFD models are used to capture the convective and radiative heat transfer modes from flames emerging from failing cells. Additionally, Dr. Ostanek is the director of the Powertrain Technology Instructional Facility at Purdue. The new laboratory, located in Dudley Hall, features a 650 hp, dual-input, AC dynamometer supporting both diesel and gasoline engines. The laboratory is equipped with infrastructure for hybridization/electrification and for running natural gas and hydrogen fuels. Students will gain unparalleled hands-on experience running engines in a small, team-based-learning environment.
Edwin Garcia: Challenges and Opportunities on the Data Driven Design of Rechargeable Batteries Abstract: The modern development of advanced rechargeable battery technology demands: 1) the formulation of a design methodology that provides an accurate physical description of the materials that integrate emerging energy storage technology at each length scale; 2) the systematic and mindful coarse-graining of lower length scale methodologies into higher length scale descriptions, and 3) the establishment of practical and meaningful processing- property- performance- degradation databases that enable the development of insight to understand and then engineer advanced, reliable, next generation batteries. Here, by defining physically consistent representations of materials that spatially resolves the multiphysical fields that results from formally considering relevant microstructural features, the time-dependent electrochemical behavior is analyzed in lithium-ion batteries. Challenges, progress, and opportunities towards integrating the physical contributions of each individual phase and its processing-induced spatial distribution into advanced descriptions are brought forward to perform the data analytics-based designs and develop machine learning tools to accelerate to the limit of real time the design of high performance and low degradation battery architectures.
9:10 AM - 9:50 AM at WALC 1018
Technical Presentations - Pumps and Motors (Chaired by Lizhi Shang)
Hannah Boland: Simulating Cavitation Effects in Scaled Axial Piston Pumps via CFD Abstract: Speed limitations in families of commercial swashplate axial piston pumps have been correlated to published scaling laws, but deviations from performance predictions have been observed, particularly for units at smaller displacement than the baseline. This presentation investigates the applicability of scaling laws to various cavitation-related phenomena by examining whether cavitation effects in a baseline unit will be maintained at a similar level when that unit is scaled volumetrically. The study is implemented through use of CFD simulation, to allow an analysis of cavitation parameter distributions, with primary focus on gas and vapor volume fractions in specific flow volumes of interest. A detailed comparison is made between the baseline and scaled units, which demonstrates that some averaged phenomena can be reliably predicted with scaling laws, while other time-based cavitation-effects show significant discrepancies between scaled versions of the unit. Results indicate that additional considerations for scaling laws may be necessary to account for damage or other negative impacts from cavitation.
Zubin Mistry: Simulation of a Balanced Twin-Lip Vane Pump Considering Fluid Dynamics, Contact Mechanics, and Micromotions Abstract: This presentation will focus on the multi-physics modeling of a balanced twin-lip vane pump. The model strongly couples the pressure inside the control volumes (solved using lumped parameter model), lubricating interfaces (solved using Reynolds Equation), body motions (solved using Newton's Law of Motion), and Elasto Hydrodynamic Contact Mechanics. The simulation gives a detailed understanding of the working of the vane pump. The insights gained from this simulation could enhance the performance of similar units in the future, both in terms of volumetric and hydromechanical capabilities.
9:50 AM - 10:00 AM at WALC 1121 Coffee Break
10:00 AM - 11:30 AM at WALC 1018 IAB Meeting (Closed Door)
10:00 AM - 11:30 AM at WALC 1087 Chat with Prospective Students
11:30 AM - 12:00 PM at WALC 1087 Lunch Break
12:30 PM - 1:00 PM METL Lab Tour - Tribology Lab Visit at Kepner Facility (1500 Kepner Dr., Lafayette)
1:00 AM - 1:30 PM Maha Lab Tour - Fluid Power Lab Visit at Kepner Facility (1500 Kepner Dr., Lafayette)

Maha Fluid Power Research Center
1500 Kepner Drive, Lafayette, IN 47905 USA
Phone: +1 (765) 496-6242