Rodney W. Trice

Research Interests

Design of High Emissivity Rare-Earth Oxides For Hypersonic Performance Informed by Atomistic Simulations

Hypersonic vehicles require sharp featured nose tips and wing leading edges to reduce drag on the vehicle. However, the geometry of these edges increase the convective heat flow to the surface, ultimately increasing the overall temperature of the component to temperatures as high as 2300 K. The current work sponsored by AFOSR is investigating approaches to reduce the heat the heat flow to these critical components. Further details on this work are available by contacting Prof. Trice.

Preparation of Ultra-Low Thermal Conductivity Coatings via Suspension Plasma Spray Using a Defect Clustering Approach (NSF CMMI-0853297):

The objective of this research is to investigate a novel processing method to produce ultra-low conductivity thermal barrier coatings that would overcome deficiencies of current yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings. Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to thermally protect the superalloy blades in the combustion area, affording hotter, more efficient operating temperatures. Our approach for preparing next generation thermal barrier coatings couples for the first time two newly developed techniques: suspension plasma spray and defect clustering. In suspension plasma spray, nanosized powders are dispersed in ethanol to form a colloidal suspension; the suspension is then sprayed into a hot plasma plume to evaporate the solvent and melt the powder. The second technique, defect clustering, involves doping yttria-stabilized zirconia with paired rare-earth ions (such as ytterbium and neodymium) to create immobile clusters in the plasma-sprayed coating. The presence of these clusters in a thermal barrier coating scatters phonons, reducing coating thermal conductivity by over one-half compared to current yttria-stabilized zirconia-only coatings. Prof. Trice will be seeking a Ph.D. student to work on this grant beginning Fall 2009.

Ceramic-Suspension Gel Processing or CeraSGEl:

Materials selection, design, and manufacturing must be considered simultaneously. It is not enough to find a material with the desired properties if it cannot be manufactured to meet the requisite design. For example, zirconium diboride or ZrB2, a ultra-high temperature ceramic, offers operating temperatures approaching 2000oC but cannot be easily formed. In the work proposed here, we will couple recently published work demonstrating that ZrB2 can be pressurelessly sintered with a new process (ceramic-suspension gel processing or CeraSGel) being developed at Purdue University. One of the main benefits of CeraSGel is that strengthening and toughening phases can be oriented to enhance the properties of the matrix ceramic during the forming process.

Fibers an Wax Mold

CeraSGel first involves suspending submicron ZrB2 ceramic powders and SiC chopped fibers in a gel created by mixing small amounts of a water-dissolvable polymer with water. The gel prevents agglomeration of the ceramic phases and provides a vehicle for forming the ceramics. Next, a rotating male-mold made of wax is immersed into the ceramic-loaded gel with the local shear stresses near the mold/gel interface to orient the high-aspect ratio SiC fibers in the direction of rotation. Thick parts are made by repeated dipping of the mold into the ceramic gel. Following a drying stage to remove the water, the wax is melted out leaving the green body. The green body is composed of the ZrB2 powder, B4C (a sintering aid), and SiC fibers, along with the residual polymer. Pressureless sintering follows to densify the complex part. Our initial studies using alumina powders suspended in a gel have produced dense, crack-free parts of complex geometry. Also, short fibers were shown to align under the application of the shear stress, as shown in the adjacent figure. The figure shows 5 mm long carbon fibers that have aligned in an alumina matrix during the forming operatioin. While the process has some similarity with gel casting, no published account aligning high-aspect ratio phases have been found. This is key because it is precisely this forming process that affords the design of ceramic microstructures with oriented phases. Dr. Clark Cooper is the National Science Foundation program manager supporting this work.  It is being investigated in collaboration with Prof. Jeffrey Youngblood.

Electrophoretic Deposition of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. One emphasis of SOFC research is the development of dense, thin electrolytes in order to reduce internal ohmic loss and facilitate reduced operating temperatures that improve practical SOFC feasibility. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a low cost and expeditious method to attain dense, thin electrolytes, requiring less investment than many competing technologies, such as the varieties of vapor and plasma deposition. At Purdue University, EPD has been used to create yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes of ~10 µm thickness, which have been used in SOFC’s achieving 300 mW/cm2 power density at 800 °C. An image of a dense YSZ coating deposited on a NiO/YSZ anode after sintering at 1400 °C for 2 hours can be seen below.

 

 

Current Funding Sources

  • U.S. Army Research Office (Dr. Suveen Mathaudhu Program Manager):  “Fabrication of Complex-Shaped Ceramic Components by Room-Temperature Injection Molding of Ceramic Suspension Gels”

  • Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Dr. Ali Sayir Program Manager ) :  “Design of High Emissivity Rare-Earth Oxides For Hypersonic Performance Informed by Atomistic Simulations”

  • Rolls-Royce Corporation: "Hot Corrosion Studies of Various High Temperature Materials"

Recent Presentations

  • K. Van Every, M. Krane, R.W. Trice, ‘Evaluating Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatigs as Thermal Barriers,” presented at the 32nd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2008.

  • K. Van Every, M. Krane, and R.W. Trice, “Structure-Property-Processing Relationships in Suspension Sprayed YSZ Coatings“, presented at the 33rd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2009.

  • K. Van Every, M. Krane, and R.W. Trice, “Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings,” presented at the International Thermal Spray Conference, Las Vegas, NV, May, 2009.

  • R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, M. Chavez, B. McKenzie, and A. Hall, “Combining Liquid Suspension Feedstock with Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray (VLPPS),” presented at MS&T, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

  • J. Fleetwood, E. Slamovich, R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, and A. Hall, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Produced by a Combination of Suspension Plasma Spray and Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray,” presented at MS&T, Houston, Texas, October 2010.

  • Valerie Wiesner, R.W. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Injection Molding of Ceramic Suspension Gels at Room Temperature for Production of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics,” Presented at the 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2011.

  • M. Acosta, R.W. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “A Novel Method to Fabricate Ceramic Composites with Aligned Fiber Phases,” Presented at the 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2011.

  • V. Wiesner, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Fabricating Complex-Shaped Ceramic Components by Injection Molding Ceramic Suspension Gels at Room Temperature,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • M. Acosta, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Horizontal Dip-Spin Casting for the Fabrication of Ceramic Composites with Aligned Strengthening Phases,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • P. Lortrakul, R. Trice, and K. Trumble, “Effect of Applied Stress, Crystal Orientation, and Phase on Hot Corrosion of CMSX-4 by Sodium Sulfate,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • J. Fleetwood, E. Slamovich, R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, and A. Hall, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Produced by a Combination of Suspension Plasma Spray and Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray,” presented at the Internal Thermal Spray Conference, Hamburg, Germany, October 2011.

  • International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, “Suspension Plasma Spray as a Route for Microstructural Design of New Thermal Barrier Coatings,” April 2010, San Diego, CA.

  • NASA Glenn Research Center, “High Temperature Materials Research on Ceramics and Superalloys,” September 2, 2010, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Purdue College of Engineering Advisory Council, “Development and Assessment of Ethics and Engineering Practice,” October 8, 2010, W. Lafayette, IN.

  • Teaching Ethics in the Engineering Curriculum, Workshop taught at the American Society of Engineering Education, Vancouver, British Columbia, June 2011.

  • J. Fleetwood, E. Slamovich, R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, and A. Hall, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Produced by a Combination of Suspension Plasma Spray and Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray,” presented at MS&T, Houston, Texas, October 2010.

  • Valerie Wiesner, R.W. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Injection Molding of Ceramic Suspension Gels at Room Temperature for Production of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics,” Presented at the 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2011.

  • M. Acosta, R.W. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “A Novel Method to Fabricate Ceramic Composites with Aligned Fiber Phases,” Presented at the 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2011.

  • M. Krane and R.W. Trice, “Development and Assessment of “Ethics in Engineering Practice”: A New Technical Support Elective,” Presented at the American Association for Engineering Education,” Vancouver, British Columbia, June 2011.

  • V. Wiesner, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Fabricating Complex-Shaped Ceramic Components by Injection Molding Ceramic Suspension Gels at Room Temperature,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • M. Acosta, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Horizontal Dip-Spin Casting for the Fabrication of Ceramic Composites with Aligned Strengthening Phases,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • P. Lortrakul, R. Trice, and K. Trumble, “Effect of Applied Stress, Crystal Orientation, and Phase on Hot Corrosion of CMSX-4 by Sodium Sulfate,” presented at MS&T, Columbus, OH, October 2011.

  • J. Fleetwood, E. Slamovich, R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, and A. Hall, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Produced by a Combination of Suspension Plasma Spray and Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray,” presented at the Internal Thermal Spray Conference, Hamburg, Germany, October 2011.

  • R.W. Trice, “ Suspension Plasma Spray as a Route for Microstructural Design of Coatings“, 5th International Workshop on Suspension and Solution Thermal Spraying, Oct 2011, Tours, France. (Plenary)

  • M. Acosta, V. Wiesner, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Design and Manufacture of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics with Oriented Strengthening and Toughening Phases,” Presented at the 36th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2012.

  • V. Wiesner, R. Trice, and J. Youngblood, “Fabrication of Complex-Shaped Components by Room Temperature Injection Molding of Ceramic Suspension Gels,” Presented at the 36th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, Daytona Beach, January 2012.

  • J. Yanke, R. Trice, and M. J. M. Krane, “The Effect of Slag Cap Thickness on Electroslag Remelting,” presented at the 2012 TMS Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

  • J. Yanke, R. Trice, and M.J.M. Krane, “A Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Droplet Impact Dynamics on the Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed Coatings,” presented at the 2012 TMS Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

  • J. Fleetwood, E. Slamovich, R.W. Trice, J. McCloskey, and A. Hall, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes Prepared by a Combination of Suspension Plasma Spray and Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray,” presented at the Internal Thermal Spray Conference, Houston, Texas, 2012.

  • S. Gong and R.W. Trice, Preparation of Rare-Earth Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings via Suspension Plasma Spray,” presented at the Internal Thermal Spray Conference, Houston, Texas, 2012.

  • W. Tan, A. Strachan, R.W. Trice, “Design of High Emissivity Coatings for Hypersonic Applications Using Suspension Plasma Spray,” presented at the Internal Thermal Spray Conference, Houston, Texas, 2012.

  • Wiesner,V., Youngblood,J., and Trice, R.W., “Fabricating Complex-Shaped Ceramic Components by Injection Molding Ceramic Suspension Gels at Room Temperature,” Gordon Research Conference, Mount Holoke in South Hadley, MA, August 2012. (Poster Presentation)

  • Trice*, R.W., “High Temperature Materials Processing: Coatings and Structural Ceramics,” Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, Medellin, Columbia., August 2012.

  • Tan, W., Strachan, A., and Trice, R.W.,“Design of High Emissivity Coatings for Hypersonic Applications,” Materials Science and Technology Conference, Pittsburg, PA, October 2012.

  • Gong, S., and Trice,R. W., “Effect of Rare-Earth Dopants on Microstructures and Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Suspension Plasma Spray,”, Materials Science and Technology Conference, Pittsburg, PA, October 2012.

  • Wiesner, V.,  Youngblood, J., and Trice, R.W., “Room-Temperature Injection Molding of Ceramic Suspension Gels for Fabrication of Complex-Shaped Ceramic Components,” Materials Science and Technology Conference, Pittsburg, PA, October 2012.

     

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