Building Moisture and Heat Transfer Analysis Tool

 

 

 

User Manual

 

 

 

 

 

Developed by

 

Zhipeng Zhong, Lingfeng Ma, and James E. Braun

Ray W. Herrick Laboratory
Purdue University

 

Table of Contents

 

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Installation Guide

2.1 Compatibility (System Requirements)

2.2 Download the Application

2.3 Installation Instructions

2.4 Uninstall instructions

3.0 Using the Program (Getting Started)

3.1 Menus

3.1.1 File Menu

3.1.2 Help Menu

3.2 Input Tabs

3.2.1 Main Page Tab

3.2.2 Building Definition Tab

3.2.3 Construction Tab

3.2.4 Indoor Gain

3.2.5 Equipment Control

3.3 Output Tabs

3.3.1 Summary Tab

3.3.2 Output Tab

4.0 Contact and References

Appendix

 


 


 

 

1.0 Introduction

BMOIST 1.0 simulates an entire residential building and predicts time-varying moisture and temperature profiles within the exterior envelope. In addition to one-dimensional transfer of heat and moisture models for the building envelope elements, it uses overall heat and moisture balances for air within each floor of the building to determine time-varying interior temperatures and humidities. The overall balances include the effects of air infiltration, indoor heat and moisture generation, HVAC equipment, and moisture/energy storage associated within internal materials. BMOIST also includes an unconditioned attic space. The air infiltration model includes the effects of wind and thermal gradients. Each floor within the building is assumed to be fully mixed but the model does consider air flow between floors and determines separate interior temperatures and humidities for each floor. Users can change the overall description of the building, wall constructions, location, thermostat settings, etc. and investigate their effects on moisture accumulation within exterior building constructions. For example the impact of the location of a vapor retarder can be investigated for different different climates.


2.0 Installation Guide

The following section explains the steps to install the Building Moisture and Heat Transfer Analysis Tool software on the computer.

2.1 Compatibility (System Requirements)

Currently the Building Moisture and Heat Transfer Analysis Tool program is available for use on Microsoft Windows Platforms only. It is compatible with all current versions of Windows till Windows Vista. JAVA Runtime Environment (JRE) is a prime requirement for the software to work on and the computer you are installing the software on must have the JAVA Runtime Environment (JRE) installed. Installer for BMOIST is available with integrated JRE. It is recommended that the most updated version of JRE be installed, look at the Downloading the Application section for details.

2.2 Download the Application

The user can download the Application Installer from the following link for free:

http://engineering.purdue.edu/MOIST

The user will have the option to download a plain installer and a installer with integrated JAVA Runtime Environment (JRE). Choose the installer depending upon the current status of JAVA environment in the users computer after consulting the Compatibility section.

For Getting the updated JAVA version user can refer to the following web site:
http://www.java.com/en/download/index.jsp

2.3 Installation Instructions

1) Click on the installer the user has chosen to launch the application. Click on I Agree to accept the conditions laid by the developers and proceed with the installation.

2) Choose the Install components and Click on Next to proceed.

3) Browse for the Directory in which the user needs to Install the files and click Next to Start with the automated process.

4) Click on Close Button to finish the Installation process. Now the user can access the program from the start menu.

**** If the user chooses to Install through the JAVA integrated Installer then the JAVA installer will pop up in Between the above process and the user needs to complete it before proceeding to the next step in the above installation.****

 2.4Uninstall instructions

1) Start the Uninstall program either from the Start menu Shortcut item or from the Control Panel ---> Add or Remove Programs Tab

2) Click on the Uninstall button to start the automated uninstall process.

3) Click on the Close button to finish the uninstall process. BMOIST has been successfully uninstalled.


 

3.0 Using the Program (Getting Started)

The following section explains the various components of the program and will make the user familiar with the working and operation variables.

3.1 Menus

On the Top-Left Corner the user will find a standard drop down menu bar containing drop down menus namely: File and Help.

 

3.1.1 File Menu

The File menu contains the following functions:

A) Save: Save the current input parameters and calculated results.

B) Load: Load a previous project file that has been saved.

**** Note - BMOIST requires significant calculations and computational time for a yearly analysis and produces a large quantity of output results.  Therefore, the Save and Load functions are very useful in allowing the user to save output results for future analysis. ***

C) Exit: Quit the program and exit to windows.

3.1.2 Help Menu

The Help menu contains the following functions:

A) Help: Open the Help file in the default web browser on the users computer.

B) About: Display the current version number for the program, a copyright notice and credits.

3.2 Input Tabs

In the various Input tabs explained below, the user must specify those parameters required for calculating the heat and moisture transfer and generating the output results. All tabs are placed in a bar on the upper part of the program window. Description of all tabs and the functions and terms contained in them is given below.

3.2.1 Main Page Tab

The Main Page is used to specify general simulation parameters.

Project Name:  The project name is included with the information that is stored using the Save feature.

Moisture Evaluation Criteria:  High moisture contents within building materials can lead to mold growth and material damage (e.g., rotting).  BMOIST uses predictions of wall temperatures and moisture contents to determine the number of hours where conditions are conducive to either mold growth or material damage.   The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ASHRAE, 2005) suggests that mold growth can occur if the relative humidity surrounding a material remains above 80% in combination with air temperatures from 40 to 100F for a continuous 30 day time span.  When the user selects Mold Growth as the moisture evaluation criteria, then BMOIST determines the number of total hours where the equilibrium relative humidity is above 80% for any layer within an exterior envelope structure.  Equilibrium relative humidity is a relative humidity of air surrounding the material that would yield no moisture transport at its existing moisture content.  The alternative moisture evaluation criteria is structure damage.  Decay generally requires wood moisture content at fiber saturation (about 30% moisture content) or higher and temperatures between 10 and 40C. When the structure damage criteria is selected, then BMOIST determines the number of hours where the moisture content is at saturation for any layer.  

Location:  The user can select from 239 TMY2 weather files provided by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the United States and its territories. The TMY2 data are derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) by NREL. The hourly data is used by the program for the external wall boundary condition and includes ambient temperature and humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed and direction.

Time Step:  The user can choose a time step that is employed for the numerical simulation.  In general, smaller time steps result in more accurate results but require greater computational time.  Different constructions and node specifications (see Construction Tab) require different time steps for acceptable accuracy.  For a particular construction, the user could determine an appropriate time step by reducing it until the results do not change. 

Run Time:  The simulation begins on January 1 after a six-month initialization period.  The user can specify the number of days for the simulation.

 

3.2.2 Building Definition Tab

The Building Definition Tab allows adjustment of parameters that define the geometry, orientation, and construction materials for the building.   There is a diagram showing the dimensions of the floor and exterior walls that changes in response to changes in dimensions.



A) General Building Parameters:

Number of Floors: This parameter allows specification of the number of floors within the residential building.  There can be up to three occupied floors.  In addition, there is an unconditioned attic space above the top floor.

Dimensions: The length (ft) and width (ft) of each floor are variables that can be adjusted. 

Orientation:  The orientation of the northern most side of the building as measured with respect to due North can be varied between -45  and  +45 degrees.

Wall:  Selection of an exterior wall construction from a library of existing walls.  The wall selection is used for all exterior walls.  The Construction Tab provides a breakdown of layers that make up each wall and allows new walls to be added to the library.

Roof:  Selection of a roof construction from a library of existing roofs.  The Construction Tab provides a breakdown of layers that make up each roof and allows new roofs to be added to the library.

Ceiling:  Selection of a ceiling construction from a library of existing ceilings.  The ceiling selection is used between the top floor and the attic.  The Construction Tab provides a breakdown of layers that make up each ceiling and allows new ceilings to be added to the library.

Internal Wall:  Selection of an internal wall construction.  This specification is used for all internal walls within the residence. 

 

Windows:  Selection of a window construction from a library of existing windows.  This specification is used for all windows within the residence.  The Construction Tab provides parameters associated with the window description  and allows new windows to be added to the library.

 

Furnishings:  The furnishing specification influences moisture storage within the building.  In particular, soft furnishings such as bedding and curtains can have a significant effect on moisture transients.  Three options are available for furnishings:  low, medium and high density.  For low density furnishings, it is assumed that the building utilizes 100% cotton curtains on all windows with a surface area that is twice the window area and has a single king size (80 inches by 80 inches) bed with cotton bedding materials.   For medium density, the surface area of curtains is four times the window area and beds having a total area that is three times that of a king size bed are included.  The high density selection is associated with curtains having an area that is 6 times the window area and  bedding with 6 times the area of a king-size bed.

    Table 1. Adsorption isotherm constants for curtain and bedding

Material

Absorption

Desorption

A1

A2

A3

A1

A2

A3

100% cotton curtain

2.74

30.9

28.9

3.31

16.9

14.9

100% cotton bedding

2.53

22.5

19.7

3.04

13.4

10.9

 

B) Floor Parameters:

The parameters in this section are specific to individual floors within the residence.

Current Floor: Used to change the floor associated with the parameters that are specified in this section.  Parameters for the attic can also be specified by setting this parameter to one greater than the number of floors specified in the Global Building Parameters.

Floor Height: Specifies the height of the current floor (or attic) in feet.

Window Ratio: Specifies the ratio of window area to wall area for each exterior wall on the current floor. 

Wall ELA: Specifies the effective leakage area for each exterior wall on the current floor as measured in square inches per square foot of wall area.  The ELA is based on a 4 Pa reference pressure differential and has a strong effect on infiltration and exfiltration air flows.  

Attic Air Change Rate:  Specifies the number of times per hour that the volume of air within the attic is replaced with ambient air due to infiltration and exfiltration.

Attic Ceiling ELA: specifies the effective leakage area for the ceiling between the top floor of the residence and the attic in units of square inches per square foot of ceiling area.

 

3.2.3 Construction Tab

The Construction Tab is where the user can view and create walls, roofs, ceilings, internal walls, and windows.  Users can select an existing construction from a library or create their own and have them added to the library. 

Construction Type

Select from wall, roof, ceiling, internal wall or window.

Wall, Roof, Ceiling, and Internal Wall Information

Users can select an existing construction from a library or create their own and have them added to the library.  Each construction includes parameters associated with the interior and exterior surfaces and properties for the different layers.  When using an existing construction, the user may edit any of the parameters for the existing layers or interior/exterior surfaces but may not change the number or type of layer materials.  To consider alternative constructions, a new construction should be created and added to the library.

The following text describes the properties that are used in specifying a construction.

Permeance:  The permeance is a measure of the moisture transport capabilities of a layer or surface coding operating under steady conditions.  Values of permeance are used for interior and exterior surfaces and layers within the wall that do not have significant moisture storage capabilities but have significant resistance to moisture transport.  The interior and exterior permeance values are associated with surface coatings, such as paint or wall paper.  Permeance is measured in units of perm, which is  a water vapor transmission rate for a given differential in partial pressures across the material or membrane. The US perm is defined as 1 grain of water vapor per hour, per square foot, per inch of mercury. 1 US perm  ≈ 57.2 ngs−1m−2Pa−1.  The table below gives permeance values for some common non-hygroscopic materials. 

Table of Permeance values for some common non-hygroscopic materials (Burch, 1995)

Material

Permeance (Perm)

19-25 mm Vertical Air space

162

Vinyl Wallpaper

0.45

Latex Paint

10

Oil_based Paint

10

Vapor Retarder

1

Building Insulation R19

23.94

Building Insulation R11

33.10

Layer Properties:  The layers are ordered from the interior to the exterior side of the building.  The layer names refer to common building materials and have hidden properties associated with them.  Thermal and moisture properties are stored within a database for a number of common layer materials.  For layers that have the ability to store energy and moisture, the user can change the thickness of the layer and the number of nodes used in the numerical model for that layer.  Materials that do not have significant storage are specified as "NON-STORAGE MATERIAL" and utilize overall thermal resistance and permeance as parameters (instead of thickness and number of nodes).  For example, an air gap could be modeled as a non-storage material.  Also, insulation is often modeled as a non-storage material.

Window Information

Users can select an existing window from a library or create their own windows and have them added to the library.  Window parameters include an overall U-value for heat gain or loss (W/m2-C) due to temperature differences and a table of solar heat gain coefficients as a function of solar incidence angle.

Creating a Wall, Roof, or Ceiling Construction

A wall, roof, or ceiling can have up to 8 layers.  Layers are specified from interior to exterior by selecting from a database of layer materials.  Each layer has default values for thickness and nodes if it is hygroscopic (i.e., has significant moisture storage capability) or thermal resistance and permeance for non-hygroscopic (non-storage) materials.  There are also default values for the interior and exterior surface permeance.  The user needs to specify a name for a new construction before it is stored within the database. 

Deleting a Wall, Roof, Ceiling, or Window Construction

This allows the user to delete any existing or new wall, roof, ceiling, or window construction from the library.

 

3.2.4 Indoor Gain

There are a number of pre-defined schedules for indoor gains that are associated different family sizes and working/school schedules.  The schedules include occupancy, light/appliance gains, and moisture gains.  There are separate 24-hour schedules for weekdays and weekends.

Average People Occupancy

The building occupants are sources for heat and moisture gains. The maximum number of people within the building is based on the selection of the household type.  The 24-hour schedule specifies percentages of the maximum for average occupancy at each hour (e.g., 0% means no occupants and 100% stands for fully occupied).  For example, the default schedule for a household type of 4 people with 2 working/study, includes 50% occupancy during business hours meaning there are two people at home during the daytime on weekdays.



Light/Appliance Gains

Lighting and appliance heat gains influence the overall energy balance for the building. User parameters include peak heat gains per unit floor area (W/SqFt) and hourly percentages of maximum gains.

Moisture Gains

In addition to moisture gains from people, moisture is generated from indoor plants and human activities associated with bathing, cooking/dining, and cleaning.  Indoor plants are assumed to generate moisture at a constant rate.  On the other hand, bathing, cooking/dining, and cleaning are activities that occur as short-term events.   The default values for peak moisture gains due to these events change with the specification of the household type (i.e., number of occupants).

 

3.2.5 Equipment Control

Equipment Setup

Temperatures within the building are assumed to be maintained between setpoints for heating and cooling using HVAC equipment. When the calculated temperature at any time is between the two setpoints, then the equipment is assumed to be off.  If the calculated temperature were to fall below the heating setpoint, then the heating equipment is assumed be controlled to maintain the temperature at the heating setpoint.  Conversely, if the temperature would rise above the cooling setpoint then the cooling equipment is controlled to maintain the temperature at the cooling setpoint.  During cooling system operation, moisture is removed due to condensation on the evaporator of the cooling system. 

In addition to setpoints, the user can specify the air flow (cfm per ton of cooling) and fan power (W/cfm). 

Cooling and Heating Device Efficiency

Equipment performance influences energy usage and moisture removal.  For cooling, the user can change default values for rated Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and sensible heat ratio (SHR). For heating, the user can choose between a heat pump and furnace.  For heat pumps, performance is characterized with a rated COP.  For furnace performance, efficiency is specified.

 

 

 3.3 Output Tabs

The BMOIST program consists of two Output Tabs which show the result of the calculations done for the selected building model and for given conditions. Once the User has finished entering the input values in all of the above Input Tabs, the Calculate Button on the Main Page Tab should be pressed to start the simulation and generate output results in these Tabs. Please wait for a while after pressing calculate button, let the simulation finish. The speed varies depending on the computer the user is using, but on average one simulation takes about 2~3 minutes to finish. Any change in the Input values results in the previous Output to be erased and pressing the calculate button starts the simulation all over again.

3.3.1 Summary Tab

Ambient Condition Summary

For the location under consideration, annual statistics are presented for the average ambient air temperature (F) and relative humidity, the number of hours when rain occurred, and the total amount of rain fall (inches). 

Equipment Sizing Information

The equipment is automatically sized based on the building description and location.  The results of the sizing are given in terms of heating capacity (BTU/hr) and cooling capacity (tons with 1 ton = 12,000 Btu/hr).

Energy Usage

Total annual input energy usage is given for heating (therms for a gas furnace with 1 therm=100,000 BTU and kWh for heat pump) and cooling (kWh).

Hours for Mold Growth or Structure Damage

Results are presented for the number of hours with moisture conditions that can lead to either mold growth or structure damage (specified by moisture performance criteria on the Main Page).  If the mold growth criteria is selected, then the results are the number of total hours within the simulation period where the equilibrium relative humidity is above 80% for any layer within the exterior envelope structures (exterior walls, roof, or ceiling).  Equilibrium relative humidity is a relative humidity of air surrounding the material that would yield no moisture transport at its existing moisture content.  When the structure damage criteria is selected, the number of hours where the moisture content is at saturation for any layer is presented.    For either criteria, separate results are presented for the worst case exterior wall (north, south, east or west), the roof, and the ceiling.


3.3.2 Output Tab

The Output tab allows viewing of plots for wall and ambient quantities with different time scales.  The user can specify average hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly outputs and can vary the period for displaying the plot (see zooming in and out).

Structural Moisture Content OutputsThe user can display plots of equilibrium moisture relative humidity for the worst-case exterior  wall, the roof, or the ceiling.  Equilibrium relative humidity is a relative humidity of air surrounding the layer (or node within a layer) that would yield no moisture transport at its existing moisture content.  Since different materials have different abilities to store moisture, equilibrium relative humidity is a more useful measure of the relative moisture content for any material.  In fact, an equilibrium RH greater than about 80% for an extended period of time can lead to mold growth regardless of the absolute amount of moisture that exists within the material.  By default, wall, roof, or ceiling results are averages for each of the layers within the structure.  However, results for any layer can be expanded to show individual nodes within that layer (see expanding layers into nodes). 

Ambient Outputs:  For any time interval (hour, day, week, month), the following quantities can be plotted:  outdoor air temperature and relative humidity, number of hours of rain, total amount of rain,  average indoor air temperature and relative humidity for conditioned spaces,  average temperature and relative humidity for the attic (unconditioned) space, and the total air change rate due to infiltration/exfiltration for the conditioned spaces. 

Zooming In:   The user can zoom in by selecting the zoom range window (left click on the chart and drag the mouse towards the right and down over the area where you want to magnify).  The enlarged result will show detailed information within the reduced range. 

Zooming OutReturn to the original output scale by left clicking on the chart and dragging the mouse towards the left and upwards. 

Expanding Layers into NodesThe default for plotting results for building structures is to show averages for each of the layers within that structure.  In order to view spatial profiles within each layer for hygroscopic (i.e., moisture storing) materials, the user can expand the nodes within each layer by clicking the mouse on the plot line corresponding to the layer of interest.

Collapsing Nodes into Layers  Plot lines for individual nodes of a layer can be collapsed by clicking on any of the plot lines for the layer.

 



4.0 References and Contact

Please feel free to contact the undersigned for any doubt or information regarding the software:

Prof. James E. Braun
Ray W Herrick Laboratories
School Of Mechanical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47906

Email : jbraun@purdue.edu

The user can also visit our webpage for download links, documentation, posting comments and more updated information regarding the software at http://engineering.purdue.edu/MOIST.


 

 

Reference paper:

ASHRAE, 2005, ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (2005), Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

 

Burch D.M. and C.A. Saunders, 1995, A Computer Analysis of Wall Constructions in the Moisture Control Handbook, NISTIR 5627.

 

Burch, D.M. and J. Chi, 1997, MoistA PC Program for Predicting Heat and Moisture Transfer in Building Envelopes Release 3.0, NIST Special Publication 917.

 

Merrill, J.L. and A. TenWolde, 1989, Overview of Moisture-related Damage in One Group of Wisconsin Manufactured Homes, ASHRAE Transactions, vol.95, part 1, pp.405-414.

 

Svennberg K., 2006, Moisture Buffering in the Indoor Environment, Doctoral Thesis, Lund University, Sweden.

 

Stuart Dols, W. and George Walton, 2000, CONTAMW 2.0 User Manual-Multizone Airflow and Contaminant Transport Analysis Software, NISTIR 6921.

 

Brandemuehl, M.J., S. Gabel, and I. Andresen, 1993. HVAC2 Toolkit: Algorithms and Subroutines for Secondary HVAC System Energy Calculations. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

 



 

 

Appendix

 

Table A.1: List of weather station locations and Classifications

State

City

WBAN No.

Latitude

Longitude

Elev (m)

Classification

 

 

Deg

Min

Deg

Min

 

NSRDB

TMY2

Alabama

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birmingham

13876

N33

34

W 86

45

192

S

A

 

Huntsville

3856

N34

39

W 86

46

190

S

A

 

Mobile

13894

N30

41

W 88

15

67

S

A

 

Montgomery

13895

N32

18

W 86

24

62

P

A

Alaska

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anchorage

26451

N61

10

W150

1

35

S

A

 

Annette

25308

N55

2

W131

34

34

S

A

 

Barrow

27502

N71

18

W156

47

4

S

A

 

Bethel

26615

N60

47

W161

48

46

S

A

 

Bettles

26533

N66

55

W151

31

205

S

B

 

Big Delta

26415

N64

0

W145

44

388

S

B

 

Cold Bay

25624

N55

12

W162

43

29

S

A

 

Fairbanks

26411

N64

49

W147

52

138

P

A

 

Gulkana

26425

N62

9

W145

27

481

S

B

 

King Salmon

25503

N58

41

W156

39

15

S

A

 

Kodiak

25501

N57

45

W152

20

34

S

A

 

Kotzebue

26616

N66

52

W162

38

5

S

A

 

McGrath

26510

N62

58

W155

37

103

S

A

 

Nome

26617

N64

30

W165

26

7

S

A

 

St. Paul Island

25713

N57

9

W170

13

7

S

A

 

Talkeetna

26528

N62

18

W150

6

105

S

B

 

Yakutat

25339

N59

31

W139

40

9

S

A

Arizona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flagstaff

3103

N35

8

W111

40

2135

S

B

 

Phoenix

23183

N33

26

W112

1

339

P

A

 

Prescott

23184

N34

39

W112

26

1531

S

A

 

Tucson

23160

N32

7

W110

56

779

P

A

Arkansas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fort Smith

13964

N35

20

W 94

22

141

S

A

 

Little Rock

13963

N34

44

W 92

14

81

S

A

California

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arcata

24283

N40

59

W124

6

69

S

A

 

Bakersfield

23155

N35

25

W119

3

150

S

A

 

Daggett

23161

N34

52

W116

47

588

P

A

 

Fresno

93193

N36

46

W119

43

100

P

A

 

Long Beach

23129

N33

49

W118

9

17

S

A

 

Los Angeles

23174

N33

56

W118

24

32

P

A

 

Sacramento

23232

N38

31

W121

30

8

S

A

 

San Diego

23188

N32

44

W117

10

9

P

A

 

San Francisco

23234

N37

37

W122

23

5

S

A

 

Santa Maria

23273

N34

54

W120

27

72

P

B

Colorado

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alamosa

23061

N37

27

W105

52

2297

P

B

 

Boulder

94018

N40

1

W105

15

1634

P

A

 

Colorado Springs

93037

N38

49

W104

43

1881

S

B

 

Eagle

23063

N39

39

W106

55

1985

S

A

 

Grand Junction

23066

N39

7

W108

32

1475

P

A

 

Pueblo

93058

N38

17

W104

31

1439

S

A

Connecticut

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bridgeport

94702

N41

10

W 73

8

2

S

A

 

Hartford

14740

N41

56

W 72

41

55

S

A

Delaware

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wilmington

13781

N39

40

W 75

36

24

S

A

Florida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daytona Beach

12834

N29

11

W 81

3

12

P

A

 

Jacksonville

13889

N30

30

W 81

42

9

S

A

 

Key West

12836

N24

33

W 81

45

1

S

A

 

Miami

12839

N25

48

W 80

16

2

P

A

 

Tallahassee

93805

N30

23

W 84

22

21

P

A

 

Tampa

12842

N27

58

W 82

32

3

S

A

 

West Palm Beach

12844

N26

41

W 80

6

6

S

A

Georgia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athens

13873

N33

57

W 83

19

244

S

A

 

Atlanta

13874

N33

39

W 84

26

315

P

A

 

Augusta

3820

N33

22

W 81

58

45

S

A

 

Columbus

93842

N32

31

W 84

57

136

S

B

 

Macon

3813

N32

42

W 83

39

110

S

A

 

Savannah

3822

N32

8

W 81

12

16

P

A

Hawaii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hilo

21504

N19

43

W155

4

11

S

A

 

Honolulu

22521

N21

20

W157

55

5

P

A

 

Kahului

22516

N20

54

W156

26

15

S

B

 

Lihue

22536

N21

59

W159

21

45

S

A

Idaho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boise

24131

N43

34

W116

13

874

P

A

 

Pocatello

24156

N42

55

W112

36

1365

S

A

Illinois

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chicago

94846

N41

47

W 87

45

190

S

A

 

Moline

14923

N41

27

W 90

31

181

S

A

 

Peoria

14842

N40

40

W 89

41

199

S

A

 

Rockford

94822

N42

12

W 89

6

221

S

A

 

Springfield

93822

N39

50

W 89

40

187

S

A

Indiana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evansville

93817

N38

3

W 87

32

118

S

A

 

Fort Wayne

14827

N41

0

W 85

12

252

S

A

 

Indianapolis

93819

N39

44

W 86

17

246

P

A

 

South Bend

14848

N41

42

W 86

19

236

S

A

Iowa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Des Moines

14933

N41

32

W 93

39

294

S

A

 

Mason City

14940

N43

9

W 93

20

373

S

A

 

Sioux City

14943

N42

24

W 96

23

336

S

A

 

Waterloo

94910

N42

33

W 92

24

265

S

A

Kansas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dodge City

13985

N37

46

W 99

58

787

P

A

 

Goodland

23065

N39

22

W101

42

1124

S

A

 

Topeka

13996

N39

4

W 95

38

270

S

A

 

Wichita

3928

N37

39

W 97

25

408

S

A

Kentucky

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Covington

93814

N39

4

W 84

40

271

S

A

 

Lexington

93820

N38

2

W 84

36

301

S

A

 

Louisville

93821

N38

11

W 85

44

149

S

A

Louisiana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baton Rouge

13970

N30

32

W 91

9

23

S

A

 

Lake Charles

3937

N30

7

W 93

13

3

P

A

 

New Orleans

12916

N29

59

W 90

15

3

S

A

 

Shreveport

13957

N32

28

W 93

49

79

S

A

Maine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caribou

14607

N46

52

W 68

1

190

P

B

 

Portland

14764

N43

39

W 70

19

19

S

A

Maryland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baltimore

93721

N39

11

W 76

40

47

S

A

Massachusetts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boston

14739

N42

22

W 71

2

5

P

A

 

Worchester

94746

N42

16

W 71

52

301

S

B

Michigan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alpena

94849

N45

4

W 83

34

210

S

A

 

Detroit

94847

N42

25

W 83

1

191

S

A

 

Flint

14826

N42

58

W 83

44

233

S

A

 

Grand Rapids

94860

N42

53

W 85

31

245

S

A

 

Houghton

94814

N47

10

W 88

30

329

S

A

 

Lansing

14836

N42

47

W 84

36

256

S

A

 

Muskegon

14840

N43

10

W 86

15

191

S

A

 

Sault Ste. Marie

14847

N46

28

W 84

22

221

S

A

 

Traverse City

14850

N44

44

W 85

35

192

S

A

Minnesota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Duluth

14913

N46

50

W 92

11

432

S

A

 

International Falls

14918

N48

34

W 93

23

361

S

A

 

Minneapolis

14922

N44

53

W 93

13

255

S

A

 

Rochester

14925

N43

55

W 92

30

402

S

A

 

Saint Cloud

14926

N45

33

W 94

4

313

S

B

Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jackson

3940

N32

19

W 90

5

101

S

A

 

Meridian

13865

N32

20

W 88

45

94

S

A

Missouri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Columbia

3945

N38

49

W 92

13

270

P

A

 

Kansas City

3947

N39

18

W 94

43

315

S

A

 

Springfield

13995

N37

14

W 93

23

387

S

A

 

St. Louis

13994

N38

45

W 90

23

172

S

A

Montana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Billings

24033

N45

48

W108

32

1088

S

A

 

Cut Bank

24137

N48

36

W112

22

1170

S

B

 

Glasgow

94008

N48

13

W106

37

700

S

A

 

Great Falls

24143

N47

29

W111

22

1116

P

A

 

Helena

24144

N46

36

W112

0

1188

S

A

 

Kalispell

24146

N48

18

W114

16

904

S

A

 

Lewistown

24036

N47

3

W109

27

1264

S

A

 

Miles City

24037

N46

26

W105

52

803

S

A

 

Missoula

24153

N46

55

W114

5

972

S

A

Nebraska

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grand Island

14935

N40

58

W 98

19

566

S

A

 

Norfolk

14941

N41

59

W 97

26

471

S

B

 

North Platte

24023

N41

8

W100

41

849

S

A

 

Omaha

94918

N41

22

W 96

31

404

P

A

 

Scottsbluff

24028

N41

52

W103

36

1206

S

A

Nevada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elko

24121

N40

50

W115

47

1547

S

A

 

Ely

23154

N39

17

W114

51

1906

P

A

 

Las Vegas

23169

N36

5

W115

10

664

P

A

 

Reno

23185

N39

30

W119

47

1341

S

A

 

Tonopah

23153

N38

4

W117

8

1653

S

A

 

Winnemucca

24128

N40

54

W117

48

1323

S

A

New Hampshire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concord

14745

N43

12

W 71

30

105

S

A

New Jersey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atlantic City

93730

N39

27

W 74

34

20

S

A

 

Newark

14734

N40

42

W 74

10

9

S

A

New Mexico

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albuquerque

23050

N35

3

W106

37

1619

P

A

 

Tucumcari

23048

N35

11

W103

36

1231

S

B

New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albany

14735

N42

45

W 73

48

89

P

A

 

Binghamton

4725

N42

13

W 75

59

499

S

A

 

Buffalo

14733

N42

56

W 78

44

215

S

A

 

Massena

94725

N44

56

W 74

51

63

S

A

 

New York City

94728

N40

47

W 73

58

57

P

A

 

Rochester

14768

N43

7

W 77

40

169

S

A

 

Syracuse

14771

N43

7

W 76

7

124

S

A

North Carolina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asheville

3812

N35

26

W 82

32

661

S

A

 

Cape Hatteras

93729

N35

16

W 75

33

2

P

A

 

Charlotte

13881

N35

13

W 80

56

234

S

A

 

Greensboro

13723

N36

5

W 79

57

270

S

A

 

Raleigh

13722

N35

52

W 78

47

134

P

A

 

Wilmington

13748

N34

16

W 77

54

9

S

A

North Dakota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bismarck

24011

N46

46

W100

45

502

P

A

 

Fargo

14914

N46

54

W 96

48

274

S

A

 

Minot

24013

N48

16

W101

17

522

S

A

Ohio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akron

14895

N40

55

W 81

26

377

S

A

 

Cleveland

14820

N41

24

W 81

51

245

S

A

 

Columbus

14821

N40

0

W 82

53

254

S

A

 

Dayton

93815

N39

54

W 84

13

306

S

A

 

Mansfield

14891

N40

49

W 82

31

395

S

B

 

Toledo

94830

N41

36

W 83

48

211

S

A

 

Youngstown

14852

N41

16

W 80

40

361

S

A

Oklahoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oklahoma City

13967

N35

24

W 97

36

397

S

A

 

Tulsa

13968

N36

12

W 95

54

206

S

A

Oregon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astoria

94224

N46

9

W123

53

7

S

A

 

Burns

94185

N43

35

W119

3

1271

P

B

 

Eugene

24221

N44

7

W123

13

109

P

A

 

Medford

24225

N42

22

W122

52

396

P

A

 

North Bend

24284

N43

25

W124

15

5

S

A

 

Pendleton

24155

N45

41

W118

51

456

S

A

 

Portland

24229

N45

36

W122

36

12

P

A

 

Redmond

24230

N44

16

W121

9

940

P

A

 

Salem

24232

N44

55

W123

1

61

S

A

Pacific Islands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guam

41415

N13

33

E144

50

110

P

B

Pennsylvania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allentown

14737

N40

39

W 75

26

117

S

A

 

Bradford

4751