Research Projects

This is a list of research projects that may have opportunities for undergraduate students. You can browse all the projects, or view only projects in the following categories:


Mobile molecular diagnostics for global health

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Electronics
School/Dept.: Biomedical Engineering
Professor: Jacqueline Linnes
Desired experience:   Experience with basic electrical engineering courses as well as microcontrollers such as Arduino is preferred.
Number of positions: 1

We are utilizing cell-phone powered valves and resistive heating to develop portable, instrument-free, molecular diagnostics that are as easy to use as a digital pregnancy test. With mobile molecular diagnostics, users can perform tests anywhere in the world and then be connected to centralized healthcare settings for immediate referral and counseling. Students on this project will perform mentored, independent research focused on reverse engineering modern digital pregnancy tests (lateral flow tests) as well as developing optimizing in-house built cell phone-powered LED-based lateral flow test readers.


3D Printed Nanostructures: Thermal and Thermoelectric Applications

Research categories:  Chemical, Electronics, Innovative Technology/Design, Material Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Amy Marconnet
Preferred major(s): Mechanical, Chemical, Materials, or Electrical Engineering
Desired experience:   Courses in chemistry, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. Experience with programming arduino or raspberry pi type systems. Familiarity with CAD software and general computer programming skills.
Number of positions: 1 or 2

Nanostructured materials are enabling technological advances, but fabrication costs can mitigate performance improvements. Solution synthesis of nanoparticles is a low-cost, high-throughput method for generating nanostructures. Combined with inkjet and\or 3d printing technology these nanoinks can be formed into on demand devices. In this project, students will develop a technique for printing thermoelectric devices and metallic heater/electrode lines for thermal analyses.


Assembly and Test of Ocean Winds Remote Sensing Instrument for the Hurricane Hunter Aircraft

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Electronics, Mechanical Systems, Physical Science
School/Dept.: AAE
Professor: James Garrison
Preferred major(s): AAE, ECE
Desired experience:   Good programming skills are essential to this project. Embedded programming and FPGA experience are strongly desired, though not required. Experience with electronic hardware, either academically or through extracurricular activities (e.g. amateur radio, robotic competitions, etc.) is also strongly desired. The project will require precise documentation, so good English writing skills are also a necessity.
Number of positions: 3

This project will involve the development and testing of improved software for an experimental remote sensing instrument designed to measure ocean wind speed and roughness in tropical cyclones. This instrument has flown on the NOAA “Hurricane Hunter” aircraft during the last season. It will be returned to Purdue to be updated, and improved based upon our experience with its performance during these flights. Using a fraction of the power, and requiring a far simple calibration process than the existing airborne radar systems, this new technology has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tropical storm development and to improve our hurricane forecast capabilities. In addition, the data may be used to calibrate a NASA satellite mission, CYGNSS, scheduled for a 2016 launch, that will utilize a similar measurement principle.


Bio-inspired phase transforming cellular materials

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Civil and Construction, Material Science and Engineering
School/Dept.: Lyles School of Civil Engineering
Professor: Pablo Zavattieri
Preferred major(s): CE, ME, AAE, MSE, IE
Desired experience:   - Background in mechanics of materials is a must. Background and some experience on mechanical tests is desired, but not necessary. - CAD software
Number of positions: 1 or 2 depending on available funding

In this project we will investigate some concepts of bioinspired phase transforming cellular materials (PXCM).The main advantage of PTCMs over traditional cellular materials used for structural applications is that energy dissipation on these materials do not rely on plastic deformation, therefore, these material recover its original shape after the load has been released.

In particular we will focus on the exploration of 3D new designs and bio-inspired mechanisms. The research tasks will be related to the design, mechanics, fabrication (3D printing) and final mechanical testing.


Bio/Pharmaceutical Lyophilization

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Bioscience/Biomedical, Chemical, Computational/Mathematical, Industrial Engineering, Innovative Technology/Design, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: AAE
Professor: Alina Alexeenko
Preferred major(s): AAE, ME, CE, BME, Physics
Desired experience:   Fluid dynamics coursework, programming experience.
Number of positions: 2

Freeze-drying, also called lyophilization, is widely used in manufacturing of injectable pharmaceuticals, vaccines, biotech products, food and probiotic cultures. The research involves first-principles modeling of fluid dynamics and heat transfer in industrial lyophilizers and validation of models by comparison with experimental data collected in lab and pilot production settings. The summer undergraduate researcher will be involved in developing computational models and analyzing experimental data.


Biomanufacturing via 3D Inkjet Printing

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Bumsoo Han
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering
Number of positions: 1

This project aims to develop scalable three-dimensional (3D) fabrication methods of functional biomaterials via inkjet printing. Although numerous novel biomaterials are recently developed, their fabrication methods are still limited to batch processes, which are very difficult to scale up for rapid fabrication and precise control of their structures at multiple scales. In order to address this challenge, we are studying the fluid mechanics and polymerization kinetics of polymer materials during inkjet printing processes. Students are expected to perform independent experiments or assist graduate students/postdocs to perform experiments. Specifically, characterize both mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, analyze fluid mechanics during injection, and determine the optimal operating conditions.


Biomechanics of Collective Cell Migration

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Bumsoo Han
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering
Desired experience:   ME or BME Junior with course work related to solid, fluid or bio-mechanics. Experience with wet lab is preferred but not required.
Number of positions: 1

Cell migration is a key cellular behavior during many important physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing and cancer metastasis. During this process, cells are thought to communicate with each other and often migrate as a group rather than individuals. This kind of behavior is called "collective cell migration." Particularly, experimental study to understand mechanical interactions among the cells and between the cells and the matrix are primary focus of this project. Students are expected to perform independently and/or assist graduate students to perform experimental research including time-lapse microscopy, digital image analysis, and biomechanics analysis.


Cationic Amphiphilic Polyproline Helices for Antibacterial Activity

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Chemical, Life Science, Other
School/Dept.: Chemistry
Professor: Jean Chmielewski
Preferred major(s): Chemistry
Number of positions: 1

The passive uptake of genes, polypeptides, particles and, at times, small molecules into cells is prohibited due to their inability to adequately cross the membrane bilayer. We have designed a class of molecules, cationic amphiphilic polyproline helices (CAPHs) that have been shown to effectively translocate mammalian cell membranes and display potent antibacterial activity. The goals of the proposed research are to probe the specific structural features within CAPHs that allow for efficient cell uptake and antibacterial action, while developing a mechanistic model for CAPH activity. Additionally we will seek to harness the remarkable cell penetrating and antimicrobial characteristics of CAPHs to target elusive pathogenic bacteria within mammalian cells.

With the knowledge that diverse CAPHs result in effective cell penetration, subcellular localization and antibacterial activity in vitro and in cyto, and with the mechanistic insight that resulted from these studies, we propose to address the following questions:
1. What effect does further structural modification of CAPHs have on cell penetration and subcellular localization, and how are these data linked to antibacterial activity in vitro and in cyto?
2. What is the mechanism of antibacterial activity and cell penetration of the designed CAPHs?


Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment (CMUXE) - Undergraduate research opportunities

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Computational/Mathematical, Material Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology, Physical Science
School/Dept.: Nuclear Engineering
Professor: Ahmed Hassanein
Desired experience:   Minimum GPA 3.5
Number of positions: 3-5

The Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment (CMUXE) is looking for undergraduate research students for the following areas:

1. Materials modification and nanostructuring by energetic ion beams
2. Nanostructuring by ultrafast lasers
3. High energy density physics in ultrafast laser laboratory
4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
5. Experimental and computational studies of non-thermal plasmas for biological applications
6. Computational modeling of physics processes for various plasma applications; in laser, discharge, and fusion devices

Research of undergraduate students at CMUXE during previous SURF programs has resulted in students acquiring new knowledge in different areas and led to several joint publications, participation in national and international conferences, seminars, and provided experience in collaborative international research.

Position is open to undergraduates in all engineering and science disciplines. High level commitments and participation in group meeting are compulsory. Interested candidates are encouraged to visit the center website below for further information.


Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Chemical, Civil and Construction, Computational/Mathematical, Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Industrial Engineering, Material Science and Engineering
School/Dept.: School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Professor: Sangid Michael
Preferred major(s): AAE, ME, MSE, IE, ChE, CE, NE, CS
Desired experience:   Preferably junior standing
Number of positions: 2

We are looking for motivated, hard-working undergraduate students interested in experimental composite materials research. This position is on a team investigating fiber orientation and length measurements in thermoplastic composites. These long fiber composites have a direct application to replace steel and aluminum structural alloys in the aerospace and automotive industries. Our team is comprised of Pacific Northwest National Lab, Autodesk, Plasticomp, Magna, Toyota, University of Illinois, and Purdue. Applicants will work under the mentorship of a graduate student and faculty member. The position includes hands on specimen preparation, in the form of extracting and polishing samples for fiber orientation measurements and melting samples and isolating the pertinent fibers for length measurements.


Combustion at Small Scales

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Nanotechnology
School/Dept.: AAE
Professor: Li Qiao
Preferred major(s): Aerospace or mechanical engineering
Desired experience:   Prior experience at Birck Nanotechnology Center is preferred but not required.
Number of positions: 1

A long-pursued goal, which is also a grand challenge, in nanoscience and nanotechnology is to create nanoscale devices, machines, and motors that can do useful work. Such tiny devices have applications in many fields. They might, for example, someday “transport medicine in the human body, conduct operations in cells, move cargo around microfluidic chips, or search for and destroy toxic organic molecules in polluted water streams”. No matter what jobs these nanomachines will be designed to do, they must be chemically propelled or powered. Various approaches have already been explored to generate power and mechanical work at the nanoscale level, e.g., novel devices made of carbon nanotubes or nanowires and mainly driven by an electrical source of energy.

Combustion, however, has never been considered as a potential means for powering nanoscale devices, even though it is still a dominant means for producing energy and power in our modern society. But the possibility that it soon will be considered in this direction is becoming surprisingly closer. This project explores the combustion behavior of nanoscale-tailored fuels and propellants. The SURF student will work closely with a PhD student to perform experiments on combustion behavior of fuels and propellants at small scales. The experiments will be performed at Birck Nanotechnology Center


Continuous Analysis of Many CAMeras

Research categories:  Computer Engineering and Computer Science
School/Dept.: Electrical and Computer Engineering
Professor: Yung-Hsiang Lu
Preferred major(s): Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering
Desired experience:   ECE 264 or equivalent
Number of positions: at most 5

Streaming data, especially video, requires heavy computation. Any system to analyze such data must be scalable and efficient with minimal latency. We are building a system that allows researchers to test their video analysis methods at unprecedented scale by running on thousands of cameras simultaneously and then displays their results. This system is operational since July 2014 and has more than 45 registered users.

More information:


Crystal Engineering of Organic Crystals

Research categories:  Chemical, Computational/Mathematical, Material Science and Engineering, Physical Science
School/Dept.: Industrial & Physical Pharmacy
Professor: Tonglei Li
Preferred major(s): chemistry, chemical engineering
Number of positions: 1

Crystallization of organic materials plays a central role in drug development. Mechanistic understanding of nucleation and crystal growth remains primitive and scantily developed despite decades of investigation. Of the same organic molecule, distinct crystal structures can be routinely formed. The intricacy of the so-called polymorphism largely originates from the rich and unpredictable supramolecular tessellations supported by intermolecular interactions. The subtleties in strength and directionality of the interactions are controlled by structural diversity and conformational flexibility of molecule. In fact, it is these molecular interactions that make organic crystal structures fascinating as it is unlikely to predict crystal structures of a given organic molecule a priori.

In this project, the student will learn how to grow drug crystals, characterize them, and connect the structural outcome with crystallization conditions. It is expected that the student will conduct both experimental and computational studies in order to understand formation mechanisms of drug crystals.

More information:


Design and development of a low pressure drop and low flow rate airflow sensor

Research categories:  Agricultural, Electronics, Environmental Science, Industrial Engineering, Innovative Technology/Design, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Professor: Jiqin (Jee-Chin) Ni
Preferred major(s): Agricultural, mechanical, or electronic engineering
Desired experience:   Laboratory and hands-on experience on mechanical and basic electronic work.
Number of positions: 1

Measuring low rate of airflow with low pressure drop is important for some high quality research projects. However, commercially available sensors for these measurements are either expensive or not highly accurate. This project will involve designing an innovative airflow sensor that is suitable for low pressure drop (e.g., <50 Pa) and low flow rate (e.g., <50 mL per hour) airflow sensor. The principle of the sensor can be mechanical, electronic, or combination of the both. A workable prototype sensor based on the new design will also be built. The sensor will provide output signals that can be acquired to a computer for on-line and continuous airflow monitoring. The successful design can be disclosed as an invention to Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization.


Detecting genomic regions responsible for disease resistance in Arabidopsis

Research categories:  Agricultural, Environmental Science, Life Science
School/Dept.: Botany and Plant Pathology
Professor: Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi
Preferred major(s): anything to do with Biology, Genetics, or Plant Biology
Desired experience:   General Bio or Plant biology, Genetics preferred but not required
Number of positions: 1

Plants are constantly assaulted by pathogens – bacteria, fungi and viruses – and rely on the action of disease resistance genes to help protect them from microbial invaders. The identification of plant disease resistance genes is a key component of crop improvement, as without these genes, plants either die or their production severely decreases. This project will identify genomic regions in Arabidopsis that are responsible for resistance to the plant bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The SURF student will grow, infect, and phenotype 75 - 100 different Arabidopsis lines. Phenotyping will include analysis of root growth and development with the image processing program ImageJ and chlorophyll content analysis. The student will be exposed to multiple different aspects of biology, including plant development, plant pathology and image analysis. The SURF student will work with a postdoctoral associate and the lab PI.


Detecting workload effects and cognitive control mode changes in continuous aircraft state data

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Industrial Engineering
School/Dept.: Industrial Engineering
Professor: Steven Landry
Preferred major(s): IE, AAE
Desired experience:   Statistics knowledge would be very helpful. Experience or interest in aviation is preferred.
Number of positions: 1

We have generated hypotheses regarding how to detect high and low workload conditions within recorded aircraft state data. Specifically, conditions of high workload result in low delay, high lag, and high gain. In this work, a human subjects experiment will be conducted where we test those hypotheses. In the experiment, pilot participants will fly a simulator under conditions of high, medium, and low workload, with the aircraft states recorded. Delay, lag, and gain will be recorded and analyzed to see if statistically-significant differences exist across the workload levels. We will also generate data to help us generate hypotheses on how discrete shifts in cognitive control mode (strategic, tactical, opportunistic, or scrambled) can be detected within the continuous aircraft state data.


Developing Brain Computer Interface for Hands-Free Movement Control

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Electronics
School/Dept.: Biomedical Engineering
Professor: Zhongming Liu
Preferred major(s): Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science
Desired experience:   Signal and System, Digital Signal Processing, Pattern Analysis, Machine Learning
Number of positions: 2

The student will be involved in developing a real-time brain computer interface system. Through this system, a human subject's brain signal will be acquired and analyzed in realtime to decode the subject's intention to move an object in a 2-D plane without involving his/her hands. The system will serve as a prototype for a new-generation medical device to facilitate disabled patients in motor control by only using their minds.


Development of Critical Technologies to Support the Construction of the Zucrow’s Turbine Rig

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Innovative Technology/Design, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Guillermo Paniagua
Preferred major(s): ME or Aerospace
Desired experience:   Passionate about mechanical design, breakthrough ideas, propulsion
Number of positions: 3

The Zucrow Turbine wind tunnel under development is a world-unique transient wind tunnel, that allows an independent change of the Mach and Reynolds number, as well as the temperature ratio of the flow to the model. This transient facility offers high fidelity heat flux measurements, with test durations from 100 ms to 200 seconds. The test-section inlet temperature can range between 80 to 800 degrees Fahrenheit, while the pressure can range from 4 to 73 PSI. The Reynolds number would range between 50,000 to 4,000,000, while the pressure ratio can be independently adjusted, allowing testing at low subsonic regimes and high supersonic conditions (Mach 3.5).

We are seeking undergraduate students to join our team and work in the following areas:
- High fidelity instrumentation to measure flow temperature, pressure, massflow, heat flux, efficiency
- Control of the wind tunnel testing sequence
- Power absorption devices of the rotating module
- CFD analysis of the tunnel components


Development of Theranostic Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Treatment

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Chemical, Material Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology
School/Dept.: Industrial & Physical Pharmacy
Professor: Tonglei Li
Preferred major(s): chemistry, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, biological engineering
Number of positions: 1

Drug delivery for cancer therapy is far from being satisfactory. A significant portion of potential drug compounds fail to enter the clinic because they cannot be formulated and delivered by existing approaches. Many clinically used formulations are poorly designed, bearing significant adverse effects and limiting treatment efficacy. Over the last few years, nanotechnology has been embraced for developing novel drug delivery systems to combat diseases such as cancer and infection. In our laboratory, we have been developing multicomponent nanocrystals to deliver cytotoxic agents along with bioimaging probes to treat and detect tumors. In this project, the delivery system will be fully tested in vitro and in vivo in order to understand the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties and to further improve the formulation design. In particular, the student will be learning and conducting cellular uptake experiment and help graduate students in their animal studies. It is expected that the student will gain a basic understanding of drug delivery for cancer and comprehend the current challenges in cancer therapy. The student will also learn the underlying design principles of our delivery system and, hopefully, provide meaningful suggestions for improvement.


Enabling Ultra-High Diesel Engine Efficiencies Through Flexible Valve Actuation

Research categories:  Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Greg Shaver
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering
Desired experience:   Thermodynamics, measurement systems; if possible: IC engines, control systems
Number of positions: 2

The Purdue team is focused on improving the efficiency of diesel engines through flexibility in the valvetrain. As one example, cylinder deactivation allows increases in efficiency, and exhaust gas aftertreatment effectiveness, via reduction in airflow and pumping penalty when 2, 3, or 4 of 6 cylinder are deactivated (both fueling and cylinder valve motions are deactivated). The Purdue team utilizes both simulations and a unique multi-cylinder engine system to study this and other strategies. The project includes funding from, and interaction with, both Cummins and Eaton.

More information:


Enhancing hardwood regeneration with select seedlings, fertilization and deer exclusion

Research categories:  Agricultural, Environmental Science
School/Dept.: Forestry and Natural Resources
Professor: Michael Jenkins
Preferred major(s): Forestry, wildlife, or similar discipline
Desired experience:   Tree identification (dendrology), forest measurements
Number of positions: 1

The successful establishment and growth of planted seedlings is critical to forest restoration. Improved techniques are needed to increase the survival of seedlings under intense competition and herbivore pressure. In 2008, a study was initiated to examine the how seedling quality, slow release fertilization, and deer exclusion influence the growth and survival of hardwood seedlings. This study will help managers and landowners better understand the benefits of fencing, fertilization, and genetic improvement on four major timber species (red and white oak, black cherry, black walnut) in hardwood forests. We seek an undergraduate researcher to help remeasure seedlings, analyze data, and prepare a manuscript for publication.


Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Energy Efficient Fluid Supply Systems

Research categories:  Agricultural, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: ABE / ME
Professor: Andrea Vacca
Preferred major(s): ME - AAE - ABE
Desired experience:   Required class: fluid mechanics Preferred course work: hydraulic systems - fluid power Preferred programming skills: labview - simulink or amesim
Number of positions: 1

This project will consider a particular design of a fluid supply system (for a high pressure application or for a low-pressure automotive application), and will focus on its characterization on following aspect: energy efficiency (evaluation of source of power loss) and noise emission (evaluation of noise radiated by the system).

The student will learn how to model and experimentally characterize fluid power systems.


Grain Boundary Migration in NiO-MgO Alloys

Research categories:  Material Science and Engineering
School/Dept.: MSE
Professor: John Blendell
Preferred major(s): MSE
Desired experience:   Hands-on laboratory experience, characterization experience, XRD, optical, SEM
Number of positions: 1

The NiO-MgO system shows a transition in the faceting behavior with composition due to changes in the interfacial energy anisotropy. The effect of interface energy anisotropy on grain boundary mobility and overall microstructural development has not been studied and models of the effects are not well developed. The investigation of this effect requires fine grained, high purity, fully dense samples. There are many challenges involved in the production of the necessary samples. This ranges from the production of alloyed powders with the minimum final particle and agglomerate size to producing sintered samples with minimum grain size.

This project will focus on the production of high purity, fully dense NiO-MgO solid solution samples of varying compositions. A powders synthesis technique using a citrate route has been developed and the student will study the effect of processing conditions on the particle size. In addition, the student will determine the effect of different sintering techniques (pressureless, hot-pressing, SPS, and flash sintering) on the final grain size and density. The student will also study the effect of different atmospheres on the sintering process. The project will involve experimental work with powder processing, sintering and material characterization.


High-pressure Combustion

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Nanotechnology
School/Dept.: AAE
Professor: Li Qiao
Preferred major(s): Aerospace or mechanical engineering
Desired experience:   Prior experience working at Zucrow labs is preferred but not required.
Number of positions: 1

Practical engines such as liquid rockets, diesel engines and gas turbine engines all operate at high pressures. For example, the pressure in a rocket engine that uses liquid hydrogen and oxygen can be in excess of 100 atm. Diesel engines have high compression ratios resulting in a pressure of above 60 atm after ignition. Aircraft gas turbine engines typically operate at pressures of 30-40 atm. For lean-burn natural gas engines, the peak pressure in the cylinder chamber can be as high as 250-300 atm. Because combustion at high pressures is thermodynamically more efficient, future engines will likely operate at even higher pressures.

As a result of high pressure, the injected fuel is often at supercritical state during the injection, mixing, evaporation and combustion processes. Our fundamental understanding of these processes at near-critical and supercritical conditions, however, is far from complete. Modeling these processes through detailed numerical simulations has serious challenges due to the non-equilibrium and unsteady nature of the phenomena, lack of a physical interface at some conditions, as well as departure from ideal gas behavior resulting in thermodynamic nonidealities and transport anomalies.

The undergraduate student to be recruited from the SURF program will work closely with a PhD student on this research. His/her responsibilities will include measurement of key parameters of high-pressure flames using high-speed imaging techniques. Also theoretical analyses will be performed to understand the new physics of high-pressure combustion.


Hydrophobic Zeolites for Applications in Adsorption and Catalysis

Research categories:  Chemical
School/Dept.: Chemical Engineering
Professor: Rajamani Gounder
Preferred major(s): Chemical Engineering
Number of positions: 1

Zeolites are microporous materials whose internal pores and external properties can be functionalized to be hydrophobic. These materials open new opportunities for performing selective catalytic reactions in liquid water, and for selective separations of non-polar and organic molecules from polar and aqueous solvents. These are fundamental scientific issues that are relevant in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to renewable chemicals and fuels, and for the conversion of natural and shale gas. This project will involve learning techniques to synthesize and functionalize hydrophobic zeolites and to characterize their hydrophobic properties.


Inside the carrot root microbiome

Research categories:  Agricultural, Bioscience/Biomedical, Life Science
School/Dept.: Horticulture and Landscape Architecture
Professor: Lori Hoagland
Desired experience:   Coursework in microbiology, molecular biology, soil biology and/or plant pathology.
Number of positions: 1

The root microbiome represents the dynamic community of microorganisms associated with plant roots. Root microbiota affect plant fitness and productivity in a variety of ways that operate along a continuum from beneficial to parasitic. Our understanding of how root microbial communities are assembled and factors that influence the nature of their interaction with plants are still are in their infancy. This project seeks to address these knowledge gaps by quantifying how soil management and plant genotype affect the composition of the carrot microbiome and affect plant fitness under pathogen stress. A combination of culture dependent and independent techniques will be used to determine the identify and activity of microbes associated with carrot roots.


Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Complex Fluids

Research categories:  Computational/Mathematical
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: John Abraham
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering
Desired experience:   GPA of 3.98 or higher
Number of positions: 1

In this project, you will assist in the development of novel lattice Boltzmann methods for the simulations of complex fluids such as multiphase flows (solid/liquid/gas) with and without turbulence, microflows, and nanoflows.


Measuring the Thickness of Lubricating Oil Films

Research categories:  Mechanical Systems, Other
School/Dept.: Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering / Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Monika Ivantysynova
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering, Agriculture and Biological Engineering
Desired experience:   MATLAB, SolidWorks/CAD
Number of positions: 1

This project aims to understand the behavior of axial piston hydraulic units. The undergraduate researcher will assist in the design of a new test apparatus for the measurement of thin lubricating films of oil. These oil films are critical to the proper functioning of many hydraulic machines. New technologies allow direct measurement of the film thickness during machine operation. Models developed and refined using these measurements will lead to improved efficiency and reliability of axial piston pumps and motors.

The project is well suited to an undergraduate student interested in fluid power, tribology, instrumentation, and virtual prototyping. Previous experience or coursework with fluid power, fluid dynamics, tribology, MATLAB, and SolidWorks or another CAD software is desired but not required.


Mobile app development for portable research instrument

Research categories:  Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Euiwon Bae
Preferred major(s): Mechanical engineering computer science
Number of positions: 1

We are seeking undergraudate student who has basic skills and experience with mobile app development.

Some experience using camera API and image processing using is preferred


Oil-in-water Emulsion Flows through Confined Channels

Research categories:  Chemical, Computational/Mathematical, Physical Science
School/Dept.: Mechanical Engineering
Professor: Arezoo Ardekani
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Physics
Desired experience:   Fluid dynamics, Programming experience
Number of positions: 1

The main goal of this project is to characterize transport of monodisperse and poly-disperse oil-in-water emulsions through confined channels by utilizing LAMMPS. A mesoscopic method called dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) will be used to capture the interaction of the droplets with hydrophilic and hydrophobic boundaries of the channel. We will quantify the transport properties of the emulsion for different scenarios, by varying the droplet size, surface properties of the channel, and addition of surfactants. Surfactant molecules are amphiphilic molecules, containing a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head.


P-Band Satellite Remote Sensing Antenna

Research categories:  Agricultural, Aerospace Engineering, Electronics, Environmental Science, Mechanical Systems, Physical Science
School/Dept.: AAE
Professor: James Garrison
Preferred major(s): AAE,ECE,ME,Physics
Desired experience:   Basic understanding of electromagnetism is desired, but not required. Experience with electronic hardware, either academically or through extracurricular activities (e.g. amateur radio, robotic competitions, etc … ), is strongly desired. Experience with metal fabrication is also strongly required.
Number of positions: 2

This project will build an antenna for receiving satellite transmissions in P-band (225-390 MHz). We are using these signals as a source of illumination in a “bistatic” radar configuration, comparing the direct signal observed along a line-of-sight to the satellite, with the scattered signal reflected from the land surface. Theory suggests that we can use this comparison to estimate the water content within the top 1 m of the soil (called the Root-Zone Soil Moisture, RZSM). This is a very important quantity for understanding the transportation of water from the soil into plant roots, and this measurement has applications to monitoring agricultural production and climate change. The project will require the design of an antenna for a specific satellite frequency, based upon an amateur radio handbook. Mechanical design and fabrication is also very important as the antenna will be installed outdoors and must withstand extreme weather (rain, snow, ice), large temperature ranges, and exposure to wildlife.


Paper-based devices for global health diagnostics

Research categories:  Bioscience/Biomedical, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Biomedical Engineering
Professor: Jacqueline Linnes
Preferred major(s): Biomedical Engineering/Mechanical Engineering
Desired experience:   Experience with course work related to fluid/bio-mechanics and/or wet lab is preferred but not required.
Number of positions: 1

The future of point of care testing will enable disease detection anywhere in the world, even in remote and low-resource settings. However, these sample-in answer-out tests will require simple operation and must be able to function without electricity. To address these challenges, we are using paper-based fluidic valves and rapid prototyping techniques such as laser cutting and microfluidic origami to develop portable, instrument-free, microfluidic devices. Students on this project will perform mentored, independent research focus on characterizing fluid mechanics during capillary action and will develop active and passive valves to direct fluid flow wicking through paper-based diagnostic devices.

More information:


Quantification of metabolic rates in photosynthetic organisms for production of renewable chemicals

Research categories:  Agricultural, Bioscience/Biomedical, Chemical
School/Dept.: Chemical Engineering
Professor: John Morgan
Preferred major(s): Chemical Engineering or Biochemistry
Desired experience:   knowledge of biochemistry, enzyme kinetics, mass balances
Number of positions: 1

The overall reserach aim is to understand how metabolic pathways in photosynthetic organisms respond to changes in environmental stimuli. In this project, the student will participate in experiments in which microalgae are fed isotopically labeled substrates. The rates of conversion of these intermediates will be analyzeded by liquid chromatagraphy coupled to mass spectrometry. The specific aim of this project is the understanding of how photosynthetic metabolism responds to environmental changes such as light wavelength and intensity. This knowldege is critical to rationally design metabolic pathways for production of renewable chemicals.


Quantifying Groundwater/Surface-water Interactions in Tributaries to the Wabash River Using Radon-222 and Other Environmental Isotopes

Research categories:  Environmental Science
School/Dept.: College of Science
Professor: Marty Frisbee
Preferred major(s): EAPS, Hydrology-related, Geology-related
Desired experience:   Knowledge of hydrology, geology, geochemistry. Experience in field sampling techniques and lab analytical techniques preferred but not required.
Number of positions: 1

Surface water systems (streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands) are supported by a variety of sources of water representing a variety of flowpaths including overland flow, flow through the soil, flow through shallow bedrock, and deeper groundwater flow. Groundwater is the primary source of baseflow in most forested and pristine watersheds and plays an important role in aquatic ecosystem structure. However, it is very difficult to quantify the role of groundwater in agriculturally dominated watersheds because, in the case of tile-drained watersheds, a portion of the flowpath distribution that would naturally discharge to the surface-water system has been greatly modified and perhaps short-circuited.

In this project, the student will investigate groundwater/surface-water interactions using radon-222 and other tracers across multiple drainage scales in tributaries to the Wabash River in northern Indiana.


Realistic Simulation of Jet Engine Noise using Petaflop Computing

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Computational/Mathematical
School/Dept.: Aeronautics and Astronautics
Professor: Gregory Blaisdell
Preferred major(s): AAE, ME, MATH
Desired experience:   Fluid mechanics (AAE 333 or ME 309), Compressible flow (AAE 334, or AAE 514 or ME 510), computer programming, signal processing (AAE 301 or similar)
Number of positions: 1

We are currently developing a scalable parallel large eddy simulation code that can realistically simulate high Reynolds number jet flows from complex nozzle geometries. The motivation behind the project is to gain insight into the noise generation mechanisms in a turbulent jet, which is crucial for designing noise reduction solutions such as chevrons and other mixing devices. Such high-fidelity simulations generate hundreds of gigabytes of flow-field and acoustics information. As a result, it becomes a significant challenge to extract meaningful information that will improve our understanding of the relationship between the turbulent jet flow and the far-reaching noise it generates. The SURF student will assist us in this effort by using a set of tools developed by a previous SURF student in 2014 to help characterize jet noise sources.

A popular model postulates that two distinct noise sources are active in a turbulent jet. One is the large coherent turbulent structures that radiate noise at shallow angles relative to the jet axis, and the second is the fine-scale turbulence that is more dominant in the sideline directions [1,2]. In 2014 a previous SURF student implemented several statistical tools that process the near- and far-field simulation data by computing correlations that are used for examining the source characteristics. These include auto-correlations and cross-correlations of the far-field pressure measurements, as well as correlations between turbulent fluctuations inside the jet and the far-field pressure. The analysis tools also include the ability to decompose the flow field into frequency bands so that the dynamics of high and low frequency portions can be studied.

The project for 2015 will involve applying these tools to simulation datasets and studying in detail how the high and low frequency portions of the acoustic field are correlated to various parts of the turbulent jet. In particular, the student will examine acoustic waves generated near the end of the potential core that move upstream in a subsonic jet to see if they interact with the nozzle boundary layer to produce vortices in the jet shear layer. In addition, acoustic waves moving away from the jet will be used to determine where in the jet the waves originated.

The SURF candidate is expected to have an interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as well as computer programming. They do not have to have had prior experience with Fortran, but they must have experience using a computer programming language and be willing to learn Fortran. A strong background in mathematics is also needed. Experience with signal processing would be helpful. The student will spend some time on the basics of Fortran. This will be followed with an overview of the jet simulation code. Then the student will learn how to use the analysis programs developed last year. In addition, the student will learn to use the flow visualization software Tecplot. The student will then apply the codes to saved jet simulation flow fields to split the flow into particular frequency bands and examine how the sound in those frequency bands is correlated with various parts of the jet.

[1] Tam, C. K. (1995). Supersonic jet noise. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 27(1), 17-43.
[2] Tam, C. K., Viswanathan, K., Ahuja, K. K., & Panda, J. (2008). The sources of jet noise: experimental evidence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 615, 253-292.


Recovery of Nutrients from Animal and Human Wastes

Research categories:  Agricultural, Chemical, Civil and Construction, Environmental Science
School/Dept.: CE and EEE
Professor: Ernest Blatchley
Preferred major(s): ABE, CE, EEE, ChE, BME
Desired experience:   First-year engineering, CE/EEE 350, previous lab experience is helpful but not required.
Number of positions: 2

Animal and human wastes are treated prior to disposal or release to the environment for purposes of controlling adverse impacts associated with these materials. However, some constituents within these wastes also represent potentially-valuable resources. If properly managed, these waste products can allow for recovery of valuable resources, and may represent a source of revenue. The aim of this project is to test, at bench-scale, treatment processes for recovery of nutrients and conversion of treated waste materials to a marketable fertilizer.

The specific approach in this project is modeled after a treatment system that has been implemented for recovery of nutrients from human urine at EAWAG (Eigenössische Anstalt für Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewässerschutz, or Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland). In this system, human urine is introduced to a reactor system in which partial nitrification of urea (and other sources of organic-N) is accomplished by nitrifying bacteria. The goal of this process is to convert urea (and other forms of organic-N) into ammonium nitrate. The nitrifying population is maintained as attached-growth on a medium that is suspended in the reactor. Oxygen requirements for the system are met by aeration. A clarifier follows the nitrification reactor to allow for separation of solids that are generated in the process. The partially-nitrified urine is then introduced to a distillation device to allow for separation of a large fraction of the remaining water. The products of this system are distilled water and a concentrated aqueous solution that contains nearly all of the macronutrients (N, P, and K) that were present in the original material (Udert and Wächter, 2012).

The proposed project will involve construction and implementation of two to four bench-scale reactors for use in treatment of waste materials that are similar to those that are treated by the EAWAG system. However, the waste materials chosen for this application are local to Purdue University.

Project Tasks
The list below describes tasks that are to be completed in this project. The overall objective of this project is to define the dynamic behavior of a nitrification/distillation system for recovery of macronutrients from animal and human waste materials. We envision two students being supported by this project to conduct the work described below.

1. Bench scale treatment:
a. Reactor construction – two to four bench-scale (1.0 L) nitrification reactors will be built in the Environmental Engineering laboratories at Purdue University. The reactors will be installed in a hood as a means of controlling odors associated with the substrates. Each reactor will consist of a 1.0 L gas-tight reactor, a small clarifier, and a small distillation unit.
b. Nitrification will be accomplished using an attached-growth culture of nitrifiers. Both reactors will be “seeded” with bacteria from an operating attached-growth system as a means of reducing the time period associated with reactor start-up. One of the reactor systems will be fed human urine from volunteers who work in Hampton Hall at Purdue University. Human urine was selected for use in this system so as to allow for direct comparison with the existing system at EAWAG. The remaining reactors will be fed a liquid waste material from BioTownAg in Reynolds, IN. The waste materials to be applied to each of these reactors will be identified in consultation with BioTownAg. Candidate waste materials include swine urine, untreated digestate, and treated digestate (solids removed).
c. Distillation of the treated waste will be accomplished using a commercially-available home water distiller.
d. The liquid product from this system will be collected and analyzed for chemical content, including N, P, and K.
2. Economic and market analysis: The potential market value of the liquid materials that are generated from these systems will be evaluated. In addition to chemical (nutrient) content, it is possible that one or more of these materials may be identified as organic fertilizer products. The “organic” label has potentially important implications in terms of the market value of these products. This market and economic analysis will include a review of the pertinent literature.
3. Mass and energy balance of the bench scale research: to the extent possible, mass and energy balances will be performed on the systems. The objectives of these calculations are to provide credible estimates of energy efficiency and resource recovery potential from these systems.
4. Preliminary design: Results from these bench-scale experiments will be used to develop designs for reactors to treat these same waste materials at pilot-scale.

Udert, K.M.; Buckley, C.A.; Wächter, M.; McArdell, C.S.; Kohn, T.; Strande, L.; Zöllig, H.; Hug, A.; Obserson, A.; Etter, B. (2014) “Technologies for the treatment of source-separated urine in the eThekwini municipality,” Proceedings, WISA Biennial Conference, Mbombela, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

Udert, K.M.; Wächter, M. (2012) “Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation,” Water Research, 46, 453-464.


Simulation, Control, Integration, and Testing of Advanced Hydraulic Hybrid Transmissions

Research categories:  Innovative Technology/Design
School/Dept.: Agricultural & Biological Engineering/Mechanical Eng
Professor: Monika Ivantysynova
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering, Agriculture and Biological Engineering
Desired experience:   One or more of the following: MATLAB/ Simulink, data acquisition and control, strong aptitude for hands on testing
Number of positions: 1

Increasing concern over the environmental impacts of consuming fossil fuels has resulted in a strong desire to improve the fuel efficiency of on-road and off-highway vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid transmissions, while lesser known than their electric counterparts, offer substantial benefits over competing technologies in terms of performance and efficiency. Ongoing research at the Maha Fluid Power Research Center is furthering the state-of-the-art of these advanced transmissions. Specifically current research includes modeling and simulation of novel transmission architectures and control strategies, physical testing using two hardware-in-the-loop transmission dynamometers, and the implementation of a hydraulic hybrid transmission in an SUV. The selected SURF student will work under the guidance of a graduate mentor on a project directly related ongoing research. The exact nature of the project will be tailored to the selected SURF student’s skill set and interests but will involve either modeling and simulation, control development and testing, or hardware integration


Transverse Impact Testing of Body Armor

Research categories:  Aerospace Engineering, Material Science and Engineering, Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Professor: Weinong Chen
Preferred major(s): School of Mechanical Engineering, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Desired experience:   An ideal candidate is one who: has experience with mechanical design and is interested in understanding high-rate deformation of materials and material systems. He/she must also be comfortable working in an environment that requires shooting body armor systems with projectiles that are commonly encountered by police officers in the line of duty. During the summer, the student will work closely with a graduate student who will be leading the experimentation. If interested, a brief tour of the facility can be given before agreeing to work on the project.
Number of positions: 2

The Dynamic Mechanics Research Laboratory is interested in investigating the effect of the rate of deformation on the properties of materials and structures. The goal of this project is to determine the effect of projectile/bullet impact onto woven armor systems, typically composed of either Kevlar or Dyneema.
As a SURF intern, your project is to assist and eventually lead a series of testing procedures aimed at describing the deformation and damage incurred in bullet-resistant body armor when impacted via ballistic projectiles. Basic understanding will be gained of high strain-rate (ballistic transverse impact), along with actual testing in this regime.


VACCINE-Visual Analytics for Command, Control, and Interoperability Environments

Research categories:  Computational/Mathematical, Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Innovative Technology/Design
School/Dept.: ECE
Professor: David Ebert
Preferred major(s): Computer Engineering, Computer Science, other Engineering majors with programming experience
Desired experience:   Programming experience in C++, others as described below
Number of positions: 5

We are currently searching for students with strong programming and math backgrounds to work on a variety of projects at the Visual Analytics branch (VACCINE) of the Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence in Command, Control and Interoperability. Students will each be assigned individual projects focusing on developing novel data analysis and exploration techniques using interactive techniques. Students should be well versed in C++ upon entering the SURF program, and will be expected to learn skills in R, OpenGL, and/or a variety of other libraries over the course of the summer.

Ongoing project plans will include research that combines soil, weather and crop data from sensing technology to provide critical crop answers for California wine growers and producers, programming for criminal incident report analysis, incorporating local statistics into volume rendering on the GPGPU, healthcare data analysis, and analyzing customizable topics and anomalies that occur in real-time via social media networks Twitter and Facebook. If you have CUDA programming experience or an intense interest to learn it, please indicate this on your application form. We also plan to have a project that will assist first responders in accident extrication procedures.

The ideal candidate will have good working knowledge of modern web development technologies, including client-side technologies such as HTML5, SVG, JavaScript, AJAX, and DOM, as well as server side components such as PHP, Tomcat, MySQL, etc. Experience in visualization or computer graphics is a plus. The project will likely be based on the D3 ( web-based visualization toolkit; prior experience using D3 or other visualization APIs for the web is particularly welcome.

Of the past undergraduate students that have worked in the center, five of their research projects have led to joint publications in our laboratory and at many of our areas' top venues. Sample projects include visual analytics for law enforcement data, health care data and sports data. Students will be assigned individual projects based on the center's needs which will be determined at a later date. To learn more about the VACCINE Center go to the website provided below.

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Variable Displacement Vane Pump Testing and Model Validation for Automatic Transmissions

Research categories:  Mechanical Systems
School/Dept.: Professor Agricultural & Biological Engineering/Mechanical Eng
Professor: Monika Ivantysynova
Preferred major(s): Mechanical Engineering/ Agricultural and biological engineering
Desired experience:   Aptitude for hands-on testing and data acquisition as well as experience with MATLAB/Simulink
Number of positions: 1

One of the most popular transmissions used in the automotive industry is the hydraulic automatic transmission. These transmissions make use of multiple gears and clutches to achieve various gear ratios as the vehicle accelerates. The operation and control of these transmissions depends on a small pump that provides pressurized oil flow for lubrication of the gears, cooling the transmission, and actuating the clutches. Efforts to increase the overall efficiency of the vehicle has required automotive companies to research ways to reduce the transmission energy losses due to excess pump work through the use of variable displacement pumps. Purdue’s Maha Fluid Power Research Center specializes in high-efficiency hydraulic systems and the selected SURF student will work with a graduate mentor to investigate the control and efficiency of one of these variable displacement pumps. The student will also help build an experimental test rig and take measurements.


Web Programming

Research categories:  Computer Engineering and Computer Science
School/Dept.: Electrical and Computer Engineering
Professor: Yung-Hsiang Lu
Preferred major(s): Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering
Desired experience:   ECE 264 or equivalent
Number of positions: 3

This project builds a web-based tool for programming assignments. Computer programming has become very complex and many tools are available. However, using these tools requires knowledge and skills beyond the background of many students. This project creates a web tool that analyzes students' computer programs and help students learn better.


Weed seed preferences and C and N isotope tissue-diet discrimination factors of deer mice and white-footed mice

Research categories:  Life Science
School/Dept.: Forestry and Natural Resources
Professor: Elizabeth Flaherty
Preferred major(s): Wildlife
Desired experience:   Coursework related to wildlife or animal sciences and must be comfortable with providing husbandry and general care for captive animals. Experience collecting/recording data and experience with basic data processing (i.e. Microsoft Excel).
Number of positions: 1

Native mice are known to provide agricultural ecosystem services by consuming weed seeds and waste grain within crop fields, yet their preference for seed types is poorly understood. Knowledge of seed preferences of native mice will help elucidate their functional role as ecosystem service providers in agro-ecosystems. Therefore, the objective of this research will be to understand the preference of weed seeds by sympatric deer mice and white-footed mice collected from fragmented agro-ecosystems in central Indiana. To achieve this objective, the selected student will conduct discrete-choice feeding trials on captive deer mice and white-footed mice to investigate their weed seed selection preferences. A second objective of this research will be to simultaneously quantify the tissue-diet discrimination factors and turnover rates of C and N isotopes of captive deer mice and white-footed mice. This will be achieved by provisioning captive mice with isotopically distinct diets (i.e. C3 weed seeds versus C4 corn) and measuring C and N isotopes from diet items and animal tissues.


iGEM Project 2015: Canary in the Cornfield

Research categories:  Agricultural, Bioscience/Biomedical, Life Science
School/Dept.: ABE and BME
Professor: Jenna Rickus
Preferred major(s): Biological Engineering or Biomedical Engineering
Desired experience:   prior participation in the iGEM club or activities is preferred.
Number of positions: 3

This year’s iGEM project is focused around designing a natural indicator for plant stressors in an industrial agriculture setting. A major problem in the world exacerbated by the increasing global population is food security. Currently, about 40 percent of crop losses are due to pests and disease. If farmers can realize and address these problems early, they may be able to mitigate losses. All plants have natural responses to both pathogenic and environmental stressors. If these responses can be indicated by an external change in the plant, it would act as an early warning system for the plants around it. For instance, if a diseased plant were to change color, it would notify the farmer of disease in an area of the field, enabling targeted termination of diseased crops while prompting increased preventative measures for the surrounding crops. The project revolves around the identification of natural biochemical response systems, the design of genetic circuits to be transformed into the plant via agrobacterium that would cause the plant to have an external indication and amplification of the internal response, and evaluation of the effectiveness of these genetic devices. As a SURF project, we are looking for students to manage different parts of this design process, including researching the biochemical responses to various stressors, determining the proper genetic parts to create the desired response, design and prediction of function of a genetic circuit from the parts, and implementation of the parts/circuit into actual plant tissue.

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nanoHUB Research in Nanoscale Science and Engineering

Research categories:  Computational/Mathematical, Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Electronics, Material Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology, Other
Professor: NCN Faculty
Preferred major(s): Electrical, Computer, Materials, or Mechanical Engineering; Physics; Computer Science
Desired experience:   Serious interest in and enjoyment of programming, programming skills in any language, physics coursework.
Number of positions: 15-20

Join the Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN) team and help build the growing set of resources being used in all Top 50 Colleges of Engineering (US News & World Report rankings) and by over 300,000 annual users in 172 countries. nanoHUB provides over 340 simulation tools that users run from a web browser in a scientific computing cloud. You will work with one of the NCN collaborative investigators, such as Professors Gerhard Klimeck, Ale Strachan, or Peter Bermel.

SURF students learn the Rappture ( toolkit that makes it quick and easy to develop powerful, interactive, web-based applications. These skills are utilized by working with nanotechnologists to put their applications and supporting information on As part of our team, you will be engaged in the National Science Foundation-funded effort that is connecting theory, experiment and computation in a way that makes a difference for the future of nanotechnology and the future of scientific communities. Other undergraduate researchers before you have each been able to literally impact thousands of nanoHUB users (for an example, see; join their legacy and create something that will build your own skills and will help others.