This is a list of research projects that may have opportunities for undergraduate students. You can browse all the projects, or view only projects in the following categories:
Design and development of a low pressure drop and low flow rate airflow sensor
|Research categories:||Agricultural, Electronics, Environmental Science, Industrial Engineering, Innovative Technology/Design, Mechanical Systems|
|School/Dept.:||Agricultural and Biological Engineering|
|Professor:||Jiqin (Jee-Chin) Ni|
|Preferred major(s):||Agricultural, mechanical, or electronic engineering|
|Desired experience:||Laboratory and hands-on experience on mechanical and basic electronic work.|
|Number of positions:||1|
Measuring low rate of airflow with low pressure drop is important for some high quality research projects. However, commercially available sensors for these measurements are either expensive or not highly accurate. This project will involve designing an innovative airflow sensor that is suitable for low pressure drop (e.g., <50 Pa) and low flow rate (e.g., <50 mL per hour) airflow sensor. The principle of the sensor can be mechanical, electronic, or combination of the both. A workable prototype sensor based on the new design will also be built. The sensor will provide output signals that can be acquired to a computer for on-line and continuous airflow monitoring. The successful design can be disclosed as an invention to Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization.
Detecting genomic regions responsible for disease resistance in Arabidopsis
|Research categories:||Agricultural, Environmental Science, Life Science|
|School/Dept.:||Botany and Plant Pathology|
|Preferred major(s):||anything to do with Biology, Genetics, or Plant Biology|
|Desired experience:||General Bio or Plant biology, Genetics preferred but not required|
|Number of positions:||1|
Plants are constantly assaulted by pathogens – bacteria, fungi and viruses – and rely on the action of disease resistance genes to help protect them from microbial invaders. The identification of plant disease resistance genes is a key component of crop improvement, as without these genes, plants either die or their production severely decreases. This project will identify genomic regions in Arabidopsis that are responsible for resistance to the plant bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The SURF student will grow, infect, and phenotype 75 - 100 different Arabidopsis lines. Phenotyping will include analysis of root growth and development with the image processing program ImageJ and chlorophyll content analysis. The student will be exposed to multiple different aspects of biology, including plant development, plant pathology and image analysis. The SURF student will work with a postdoctoral associate and the lab PI.
Enhancing hardwood regeneration with select seedlings, fertilization and deer exclusion
|Research categories:||Agricultural, Environmental Science|
|School/Dept.:||Forestry and Natural Resources|
|Preferred major(s):||Forestry, wildlife, or similar discipline|
|Desired experience:||Tree identification (dendrology), forest measurements|
|Number of positions:||1|
The successful establishment and growth of planted seedlings is critical to forest restoration. Improved techniques are needed to increase the survival of seedlings under intense competition and herbivore pressure. In 2008, a study was initiated to examine the how seedling quality, slow release fertilization, and deer exclusion influence the growth and survival of hardwood seedlings. This study will help managers and landowners better understand the benefits of fencing, fertilization, and genetic improvement on four major timber species (red and white oak, black cherry, black walnut) in hardwood forests. We seek an undergraduate researcher to help remeasure seedlings, analyze data, and prepare a manuscript for publication.
P-Band Satellite Remote Sensing Antenna
|Research categories:||Agricultural, Aerospace Engineering, Electronics, Environmental Science, Mechanical Systems, Physical Science|
|Desired experience:||Basic understanding of electromagnetism is desired, but not required. Experience with electronic hardware, either academically or through extracurricular activities (e.g. amateur radio, robotic competitions, etc … ), is strongly desired. Experience with metal fabrication is also strongly required.|
|Number of positions:||2|
This project will build an antenna for receiving satellite transmissions in P-band (225-390 MHz). We are using these signals as a source of illumination in a “bistatic” radar configuration, comparing the direct signal observed along a line-of-sight to the satellite, with the scattered signal reflected from the land surface. Theory suggests that we can use this comparison to estimate the water content within the top 1 m of the soil (called the Root-Zone Soil Moisture, RZSM). This is a very important quantity for understanding the transportation of water from the soil into plant roots, and this measurement has applications to monitoring agricultural production and climate change. The project will require the design of an antenna for a specific satellite frequency, based upon an amateur radio handbook. Mechanical design and fabrication is also very important as the antenna will be installed outdoors and must withstand extreme weather (rain, snow, ice), large temperature ranges, and exposure to wildlife.
Quantifying Groundwater/Surface-water Interactions in Tributaries to the Wabash River Using Radon-222 and Other Environmental Isotopes
|Research categories:||Environmental Science|
|School/Dept.:||College of Science|
|Preferred major(s):||EAPS, Hydrology-related, Geology-related|
|Desired experience:||Knowledge of hydrology, geology, geochemistry. Experience in field sampling techniques and lab analytical techniques preferred but not required.|
|Number of positions:||1|
Surface water systems (streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands) are supported by a variety of sources of water representing a variety of flowpaths including overland flow, flow through the soil, flow through shallow bedrock, and deeper groundwater flow. Groundwater is the primary source of baseflow in most forested and pristine watersheds and plays an important role in aquatic ecosystem structure. However, it is very difficult to quantify the role of groundwater in agriculturally dominated watersheds because, in the case of tile-drained watersheds, a portion of the flowpath distribution that would naturally discharge to the surface-water system has been greatly modified and perhaps short-circuited.
In this project, the student will investigate groundwater/surface-water interactions using radon-222 and other tracers across multiple drainage scales in tributaries to the Wabash River in northern Indiana.
Recovery of Nutrients from Animal and Human Wastes
|Research categories:||Agricultural, Chemical, Civil and Construction, Environmental Science|
|School/Dept.:||CE and EEE|
|Preferred major(s):||ABE, CE, EEE, ChE, BME|
|Desired experience:||First-year engineering, CE/EEE 350, previous lab experience is helpful but not required.|
|Number of positions:||2|
Animal and human wastes are treated prior to disposal or release to the environment for purposes of controlling adverse impacts associated with these materials. However, some constituents within these wastes also represent potentially-valuable resources. If properly managed, these waste products can allow for recovery of valuable resources, and may represent a source of revenue. The aim of this project is to test, at bench-scale, treatment processes for recovery of nutrients and conversion of treated waste materials to a marketable fertilizer.
The specific approach in this project is modeled after a treatment system that has been implemented for recovery of nutrients from human urine at EAWAG (Eigenössische Anstalt für Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewässerschutz, or Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland). In this system, human urine is introduced to a reactor system in which partial nitrification of urea (and other sources of organic-N) is accomplished by nitrifying bacteria. The goal of this process is to convert urea (and other forms of organic-N) into ammonium nitrate. The nitrifying population is maintained as attached-growth on a medium that is suspended in the reactor. Oxygen requirements for the system are met by aeration. A clarifier follows the nitrification reactor to allow for separation of solids that are generated in the process. The partially-nitrified urine is then introduced to a distillation device to allow for separation of a large fraction of the remaining water. The products of this system are distilled water and a concentrated aqueous solution that contains nearly all of the macronutrients (N, P, and K) that were present in the original material (Udert and Wächter, 2012).
The proposed project will involve construction and implementation of two to four bench-scale reactors for use in treatment of waste materials that are similar to those that are treated by the EAWAG system. However, the waste materials chosen for this application are local to Purdue University.
The list below describes tasks that are to be completed in this project. The overall objective of this project is to define the dynamic behavior of a nitrification/distillation system for recovery of macronutrients from animal and human waste materials. We envision two students being supported by this project to conduct the work described below.
1. Bench scale treatment:
a. Reactor construction – two to four bench-scale (1.0 L) nitrification reactors will be built in the Environmental Engineering laboratories at Purdue University. The reactors will be installed in a hood as a means of controlling odors associated with the substrates. Each reactor will consist of a 1.0 L gas-tight reactor, a small clarifier, and a small distillation unit.
b. Nitrification will be accomplished using an attached-growth culture of nitrifiers. Both reactors will be “seeded” with bacteria from an operating attached-growth system as a means of reducing the time period associated with reactor start-up. One of the reactor systems will be fed human urine from volunteers who work in Hampton Hall at Purdue University. Human urine was selected for use in this system so as to allow for direct comparison with the existing system at EAWAG. The remaining reactors will be fed a liquid waste material from BioTownAg in Reynolds, IN. The waste materials to be applied to each of these reactors will be identified in consultation with BioTownAg. Candidate waste materials include swine urine, untreated digestate, and treated digestate (solids removed).
c. Distillation of the treated waste will be accomplished using a commercially-available home water distiller.
d. The liquid product from this system will be collected and analyzed for chemical content, including N, P, and K.
2. Economic and market analysis: The potential market value of the liquid materials that are generated from these systems will be evaluated. In addition to chemical (nutrient) content, it is possible that one or more of these materials may be identified as organic fertilizer products. The “organic” label has potentially important implications in terms of the market value of these products. This market and economic analysis will include a review of the pertinent literature.
3. Mass and energy balance of the bench scale research: to the extent possible, mass and energy balances will be performed on the systems. The objectives of these calculations are to provide credible estimates of energy efficiency and resource recovery potential from these systems.
4. Preliminary design: Results from these bench-scale experiments will be used to develop designs for reactors to treat these same waste materials at pilot-scale.
Udert, K.M.; Buckley, C.A.; Wächter, M.; McArdell, C.S.; Kohn, T.; Strande, L.; Zöllig, H.; Hug, A.; Obserson, A.; Etter, B. (2014) “Technologies for the treatment of source-separated urine in the eThekwini municipality,” Proceedings, WISA Biennial Conference, Mbombela, Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Udert, K.M.; Wächter, M. (2012) “Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation,” Water Research, 46, 453-464.