Bowen Lab Projects

Seismic Response of Structural Walls with Reinforcement and Geometric Discontinuities
The objective of this project was to study the seismic response of structural walls with a vertical stack of openings that terminate in a solid wall in the lower stories in building structures (Figure 1). Abundant field evidence shows that panel zones below the stack of openings are vulnerable to shear distress when subjected to lateral loads. Shear stresses can be increased if there are reinforcement discontinuities in or near the panel zone. Two walls were tested to study the response of structural walls with a stack of openings subjected to lateral loads. One specimen had all longitudinal reinforcement continuous. The second specimen had the longitudinal boundary-element reinforcement flanking the openings anchored in the solid wall region. Distress caused by shear below the openings shifted the critical section resisting bending moments to the base of the first story (Figures 2 and 3). This shift caused an anchorage failure in the wall where the longitudinal reinforcement that flanks the openings was anchored in the solid wall panel (Figure 3).
Member-level Redundancy in Built-up Steel Members
The objective of this research is to quantify the redundancy possessed by built-up steel members (bolted or riveted). Typically, built-up members will not 'fail' if one of the components fails (whether through fatigue or fracture). However, there is very little experimental data quantifying the remaining fatigue life and strength of a member in which one of the components has failed.
Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Walls with Lap Splices
Lap-splice failures in reinforced concrete walls and smoke stacks after recent earthquakes (e.g. Izmit, Turkey in 1999, Northridge, United States in 1994, Maule, Chile in 2010) and the scarcity of experimental data revealed the need for this investigation.
Modal Analysis and Load Identification Techniques for a Rapidly Emplaced Bridge System Modal Analysis and Load Identification Techniques for a Rapidly Emplaced Bridge System
This project's goals are first to determine through experimental procedures the vibration behavior of a military-type deployable bridge under various types of loading conditions, e. g.: moving mass, moving load and moving oscillator travelling along the bridge at different speeds; and second, to develop a valid approach to identify the type of load the bridge is subjected to from experimental data only.
Laboratory Testing of Railroad Flatcars For Use as Highway Bridges on Low-Volume Roads to Determine Ultimate Strength and Redundancy Laboratory Testing of Railroad Flatcars For Use as Highway Bridges on Low-Volume Roads to Determine Ultimate Strength and Redundancy
Several counties in Indiana use retired railroad flatcars for a bridge superstructure to replace existing deteriorating county bridges. There are over 130 railroad flatcar bridges in the state of Indiana. The main objective of this laboratory project is to provide greater confidence to county engineers when load rating these bridges by studying the ultimate strength and load redundancy of the bridge system. Testing in the laboratory creates the opportunities to test at larger loads, use a greater number of instrumentation, and simulate a controlled fracture test.
US-China: Verification of Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Through Shake Table Comparison US-China: Verification of Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Through Shake Table Comparison
Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) provides researchers the opportunity to isolate and physically investigate only the more complex or critical components, while numerically including the remainder of the structure. This approach allows for a wide range of configurations to be tested using a single test specimen. This work present the results of a three phase project focusing on comparison of analytical simulation, physical full-scale tests and real-time hybrid simulation tests of a medium-scale prototype structure under various earthquake inputs.
Solar Cooling and Heating System
The solar absorption cooling and heating system (SACH) located at Bowen Lab of Purdue is the first high temperature SACH system composed of stationary solar concentrators and a double effect absorption chiller. This system primarily uses 100 m2 stationary eXternal Compound Parabolic Concentrating collectors (XCPC) and a 23 kW double-effect absorption chiller to provide the cooling and heating demands.
Detecting and Quantifying Damage in Buildings using Earthquake Response Data Detecting and Quantifying Damage in Buildings using Earthquake Response Data
The focus of this research is to develop the means to detect and quantify damage in buildings following earthquakes. The hypothesis is that building acceleration records contain sufficient characteristic information to develop the lateral-load resistance curve, also known as the capacity curve, from which the extent and locations of nonlinear behavior could be estimated.
Increasing Bridge Deck Service Life Increasing Bridge Deck Service Life
The Indiana Department of Transportation is funding this project with an objective of developing a bridge deck that has a service life of 75-100 years. To potentially improve the durability and performance of bridge decks, new types of alternative materials are evaluated. The alternative materials considered in this research are four different types of solid stainless steel (316LN, Duplex 2205, Duplex 2304, XM-28), MMFX II microcomposite steel, dual coated steel with zinc and epoxy, zinc-clad steel, and hot-dip galvanized steel. The research addresses: 1) the bond behavior between alternative corrosion-resistant reinforcing steel and concrete, 2) the cracking performance, and 3) the corrosion resistance of alternative reinforcement. A total number of 48 lap-spliced beam specimens, 12 slab specimens, and 112 modified macrocell specimens were designed, constructed, and tested to evaluate the structural and material performance of these new materials.
Efficient Load Rating and Quantification of Life-Cycle Damage of Indiana Bridges Due to Overweight Loads Efficient Load Rating and Quantification of Life-Cycle Damage of Indiana Bridges Due to Overweight Loads
The project aims at studying the relationships between, (i) overweight trucks, (ii) load rating and damage of bridges due to the overweight trucks, (iii) associated maintenance costs, and, (iv) the reduction is service-life due to damage.

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